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1. chinaXiv:202110.00028 [pdf]

新疆水生态文明建设的水资源保护利用策略研究

蔺卿
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

水生态文明建设是新疆干旱区生态文明建设的关键,中国特色社会主义事业“五位一体”总 体布局对生态文明建设做出了战略部署。目前对干旱区水生态文明建设应关注的问题,水资源如 何保障和服务水生态文明建设等问题并不清晰。本文从水生态文明建设的角度综述了干旱区水 资源开发的生态环境效应研究和水生态文明研究,重点探讨了新疆水生态文明建设需坚持的重要 原则,提出了协调经济社会系统和生态系统的水资源保护利用策略。

submitted time 2021-10-10 From cooperative journals:《干旱区地理》 Hits3967Downloads218 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202107.00024 [pdf]

Projections of temperature extremes based on preferred CMIP5 models: a case study in the Kaidu-Kongqi River basin in Northwest China

CHEN Li; XU Changchun; LI Xiaofei
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

The extreme temperature has more outstanding impact on ecology and water resources in arid regions than the average temperature. Using the downscaled daily temperature data from 21 Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP) models of NASA Earth Exchange Global Daily Downscaled Projections (NEX-GDDP) and the observation data, this paper analyzed the changes in temporal and spatiotemporal variation of temperature extremes, i.e., the maximum temperature (Tmax) and minimum temperature (Tmin), in the Kaidu-Kongqi River basin in Northwest China over the period 2020–2050 based on the evaluation of preferred Multi-Model Ensemble (MME). Results showed that the Partial Least Square ensemble mean participated by Preferred Models (PM-PLS) was better representing the temporal change and spatial distribution of temperature extremes during 1961–2005 and was chosen to project the future change. In 2020–2050, the increasing rate of Tmax (Tmin) under RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway) 8.5 will be 2.0 (1.6) times that under RCP4.5, and that of Tmin will be larger than that of Tmax under each corresponding RCP. Tmin will keep contributing more to global warming than Tmax. The spatial distribution characteristics of Tmax and Tmin under the two RCPs will overall the same; but compared to the baseline period (1986–2005), the increments of Tmax and Tmin in plain area will be larger than those in mountainous area. With the emission concentration increased, however, the response of Tmax in mountainous area will be more sensitive than that in plain area, and that of Tmin will be equivalently sensitive in mountainous area and plain area. The impacts induced by Tmin will be universal and far-reaching. Results of spatiotemporal variation of temperature extremes indicate that large increases in the magnitude of warming in the basin may occur in the future. The projections can provide the scientific basis for water and land plan management and disaster prevention and mitigation in the inland river basin.

submitted time 2021-07-23 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits589Downloads299 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202105.00010 [pdf]

Characteristics and hazards of different snow avalanche types in a continental snow climate region in the Central Tianshan Mountains

HAO Jiansheng; Richard MIND'JE; LIU Yang; HUANG Farong; ZHOU Hao; LI Lanhai
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Snow avalanches are a common natural hazard in many countries with seasonally snow-covered mountains. The avalanche hazard varies with snow avalanche type in different snow climate regions and at different times. The ability to understand the characteristics of avalanche activity and hazards of different snow avalanche types is a prerequisite for improving avalanche disaster management in the mid-altitude region of the Central Tianshan Mountains. In this study, we collected data related to avalanche, snowpack, and meteorology during four snow seasons (from 2015 to 2019), and analysed the characteristics and hazards of different types of avalanches. The snow climate of the mid-altitude region of the Central Tianshan Mountains was examined using a snow climate classification scheme, and the results showed that the mountain range has a continental snow climate. To quantify the hazards of different types of avalanches and describe their situation over time in the continental snow climate region, this study used the avalanche hazard degree to assess the hazards of four types of avalanches, i.e., full-depth dry snow avalanches, full-depth wet snow avalanches, surface-layer dry snow avalanches, and surface-layer wet snow avalanches. The results indicated that surface-layer dry snow avalanches were characterized by large sizes and high release frequencies, which made them having the highest avalanche hazard degree in the Central Tianshan Mountains with a continental snow climate. The overall avalanche hazard showed a single peak pattern over time during the snow season, and the greatest hazard occurred in the second half of February when the snowpack was deep and the temperature increased. This study can help the disaster and emergency management departments rationally arrange avalanche relief resources and develop avalanche prevention strategies.

submitted time 2021-04-30 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2706Downloads530 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202103.00018 [pdf]

喀什地区生态脆弱性时空变化及驱动力分析

李路
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

生态脆弱性评价对认识、保护和改造生态环境,促进人与自然的和谐具有重要意义。为了 合理利用生态资源,在开发建设中保护环境,故研究喀什地区生态脆弱性时空动态变化,为社会经 济与生态保护和谐发展提供科学依据。基于“暴露度-敏感性-恢复力”的评价框架,从自然条件和 人为活动方面选取 13 个指标构建 2000—2016 年喀什地区生态脆弱性评价指标体系,采用空间主 成分方法分析喀什地区生态脆弱性等级的时空变化,并用地理探测器模型分析其驱动因素。结果 表明:喀什地区北部区域生态脆弱性高于南部地区,高度脆弱区面积增多且集中在叶尔羌河中下 游和喀什噶尔河下游,脆弱性呈现整体增加并向东北方向转移。2000—2016 年喀什地区各县市生 态脆弱性最低值在塔什库尔干塔吉克自治县,其次为喀什市和泽普县,均属于微度脆弱;最高的是 莎车县、伽师县和巴楚县,属于高度脆弱地区。气温、地形和植被覆盖度因素造成喀什地区南北地 带生态脆弱性空间分异;耕地面积、牲畜头数的增长引起景观破碎度变大,与区域恶劣的自然环境 相互耦合加重了喀什地区的生态脆弱性,导致了喀什地区整体生态环境脆弱性向东北方向扩大。

submitted time 2021-03-03 From cooperative journals:《干旱区地理》 Hits1768Downloads665 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202102.00062 [pdf]

新时期新疆水库大坝建设的主要问题与对策建议

李江; 柳莹
Subjects: Geosciences >> Hydrology

截止 2018 年,全疆(含兵团)已建、在建及拟建水库 722 座(包括电站水库),总库容 295.0 × 108 m3。有力地改善了水资源调控和利用效率,在灌溉、供水、防洪、发电、旅游等方面发挥了极其 重要的作用。新时期按照水利部“水利工程补短板、水利行业强监管”的工作总基调,针对南北疆 水资源配置不平衡问题、水资源利用不充分问题,谋划提出了兴建数十座大中型山区水库,以及提 升已建水库大坝信息化管理水平、加强水库调度运行管理,在满足生态需水的前提下统筹生活、生 产供水,最大程度发挥水库效益、确保水库安全运行。针对新时期气候变化条件下水库洪水风险 分析、大坝建设需要重点关注的几项关键技术、山区水库替代平原水库、河流健康与生态调度、水库 清淤与能力提升、水库信息化与智能调度以及延长服役期等问题进行了探讨,提出若干对策建议。

submitted time 2021-02-13 From cooperative journals:《干旱区地理》 Hits544Downloads375 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202101.00029 [pdf]

天山北坡经济带“三生空间”发展格局 与智能水网体系建设

邓铭江
Subjects: Geosciences >> Hydrology

天山北坡经济带是新疆生产力集中度较高,现代工业、农业、交通信息、教育科技等较为发达的区域,是国家丝绸之路经济带建设的核心区,对新疆经济社会发展具有重要的带动和辐射作用,国内生产总值均占全疆 53%以上,工业增加值占全疆 67%,城镇化率 68.9%,远高于全疆 42.1%的平均水平,然而水资源却仅占11%。为破解资源性缺水困境而实施的“两河调水”工程正在陆续建成发挥效益,如何优化配置原水与客水、高水与低水、地表水与地下水等各种水源,统筹协调区域、城乡、兵地、产业、经济社会与生态环境等各种需求,已成为亟待研究决策的重大现实问题。通过分析天北带水资源可利用量、生态环境需水量、水资源开发利用现状及存在问题,结合调水工程新增水量,提出了水资源优化配置的原则、贯彻新时期“十六字”治水思路和“五大”发展理念的实践路径与综合调控措施,主要学术观点和结论为:(1)结合“两河调水”工程,在天山北坡建设东西连通的输水大通道,将由南向北流的逐条河流交叉连接起来,形成一个南北交汇,东西贯通,覆盖整个区域的“大水网”,实现全域水源优化配置。(2)按照“以水定地,以水定产,以水定城,适水发展”的原则,强化国土空间管控,按照“生产空间集约高效,生活空间宜居适度,生态空间自然和谐”为原则,优化“三生空间”发展格局。(3)打破旱区弱水资源承载力、高生态胁迫压力、低经济发展能力的桎梏,从水资源—经济社会—生态环境三个维度,科学把控“大水网”建设和水利发展定位,合理配置“三生用水”,耦合协调“三生关系”,实现生态保护和高质量发展。(4)面向未来和新基建工程的喷涌发展,建设水物理网、水信息网、水管理网“三网合一”的智能水网势在必行,代表智慧水利的发展方向,也是当代水利科技前沿。

submitted time 2021-01-06 From cooperative journals:《干旱区地理》 Hits826Downloads578 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202001.00026 [pdf]

不同植被覆盖度沙垄土壤化学性质的空间分异

李浙华
Subjects: Geosciences >> Hydrology

为了研究温带固定半固定沙漠土壤化学性质与地表植被的关系,本文以古尔班通古特沙漠西南缘莫索湾地区沙漠–绿洲过渡带为研究区,分别选取植被覆盖度为10%和15%的半固定沙垄及植被盖度为30%的固定沙垄。采集了各沙垄不同地貌部位的土壤样品,室内测试了土壤pH、电导率、有机质、全氮和全磷等指标。结果表明:① 随着植被覆盖度下降,沙垄西坡、坡顶和东坡,土壤pH、电导率、有机质、全氮和全磷呈逐渐降低趋势;② 不同地貌部位的分布格局各沙垄表现不一致,沙垄A和沙垄B的 pH、电导率、有机质、全氮和全磷含量最大值均出现在垄间地,其他部位之间没有明显的规律,沙垄C 的pH和电导率最大值出现在垄间地,而土壤养分含量于坡顶部位富集;③ 各沙垄不同土层土壤性质分布规律相对一致,土壤pH、电导率随着土层深度的增加呈上升的趋势,而土壤养分随着土层深度的增加而降低;④ 土壤化学性质空间分布异质性与植被的分布格局密切相关,相互影响,当植被覆盖度较高时,生物作用起主导作用,当植被覆盖度较低时,风蚀、地形等非生物因素作用加强,影响生物作用,植被对土壤颗粒和养分的拦截及富集作用逐渐减弱或消失。

submitted time 2020-01-02 From cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits1581Downloads899 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:201911.00014 [pdf]

中巴农产品贸易的效率评价与潜力预测研究

舒芹; 苏洋; 李凤; 汪晶晶; 黄玉洁; 刘蕾
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

基于1992—2016年中国与南亚八国的相关贸易数据,从巴基斯坦的角度出发,选取南亚七国作为参考对象,利用随机前沿引力模型对其双边农产品贸易总额及出口农产品贸易总额的面板数据进行测算。研究结果表明:人均GDP、国家类型等因素对中巴双边农产品贸易发展产生正向影响;人口、距离因素则阻碍中巴农产品贸易发展;中巴双边农产品贸易效率(平均值约0.689)高于中国对巴基斯坦出口农产品贸易效率(平均值约0.615);中国对巴基斯坦实际农产品出口总额未达到最佳的贸易前沿水平,因此农产品出口还存在较大的提升空间。

submitted time 2019-11-15 From cooperative journals:《干旱区地理》 Hits5348Downloads1168 Comment 0

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