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1. chinaXiv:202201.00020 [pdf]

Estimation of rock Fe content based on hyperspectral indices

WANG Jinlin; WANG Wei; CHENG Yinyi; ZHANG Zhixin; WANG Shanshan; ZHOU Kefa; LI Pingheng
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Information on the Fe content of bare rocks is needed for implementing geochemical processes and identifying mines. However, the influence of Fe content on the spectra of bare rocks has not been thoroughly analyzed in previous studies. The Saur Mountain region within the Hoboksar of the Russell Hill depression was selected as the study area. Specifically, we analyzed six hyperspectral indices related to rock Fe content based on laboratory measurements (Dataset I) and field measurements (Dataset II). In situ field measurements were acquired to verify the laboratory measurements. Fe content of the rock samples collected from different fresh and weathered rock surfaces were divided into six levels to reveal the spatial distributions of Fe content of these samples. In addition, we clearly displayed wavelengths with obvious characteristics by analyzing the spectra of these samples. The results of this work indicated that Fe content estimation models based on the fresh rock surface measurements in the laboratory can be applied to in situ field or satellite-based measurements of Fe content of the weathered rock surfaces. It is not the best way to use only the single wavelengths reflectance at all absorption wavelengths or the depth of these absorption features to estimate Fe content. Based on sample data analysis, the comparison with other indices revealed that the performance of the modified normalized difference index is the best indicator for estimating rock Fe content, with R2 values of 0.45 and 0.40 corresponding to datasets I and II, respectively. Hence, the modified normalized difference index (the wavelengths of 2220, 2290, and 2370 nm) identified in this study could contribute considerably to improve the identification accuracy of rock Fe content in the bare rock areas. The method proposed in this study can obviously provide an efficient solution for large-scale rock Fe content measurements in the field.

submitted time 2021-12-30 Cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits6702Downloads376 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202201.00021 [pdf]

Land use/land cover change responses to ecological water conveyance in the lower reaches of Tarim River, China

WANG Shanshan; ZHOU Kefa; ZUO Qiting; WANG Jinlin; WANG Wei
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

The Tarim River is the longest inland river in China and is considered as an important river to protect the oasis economy and environment of the Tarim Basin. However, excessive exploitation and over-utilization of natural resources, particularly water resources, have triggered a series of ecological and environmental problems, such as the reduction in the volume of water in the main river, deterioration of water quality, drying up of downstream rivers, degradation of vegetation, and land desertification. In this study, the land use/land cover change (LUCC) responses to ecological water conveyance in the lower reaches of the Tarim River were investigated using ENVI (Environment for Visualizing Images) and GIS (Geographic Information System) data analysis software for the period of 1990–2018. Multi-temporal remote sensing images and ecological water conveyance data from 1990 to 2018 were used. The results indicate that LUCC covered an area of 2644.34 km2 during this period, accounting for 15.79% of the total study area. From 1990 to 2018, wetland, farmland, forestland, and artificial surfaces increased by 533.42 km2 (216.77%), 446.68 km2 (123.66%), 284.55 km2 (5.67%), and 57.51 km2 (217.96%), respectively, whereas areas covered by grassland and other land use/land cover types, such as Gobi, bare soil, and deserts, decreased by 103.34 km2 (14.31%) and 1218.83 km2 (11.75%), respectively. Vegetation area decreased first and then increased, with the order of 2010<2000<1990<2018. LUCC in the overflow and stagnant areas in the lower reaches of the Tarim River was mainly characterized by fragmentation, irregularity, and complexity. By analyzing the LUCC responses to 19 rounds of ecological water conveyance in the lower reaches of the Tarim River from 2000 to the end of 2018, we proposed guidelines for the rational development and utilization of water and soil resources and formulation of strategies for the sustainable development of the lower reaches of the Tarim River. This study provides scientific guidance for optimal scheduling of water resources in the region.

submitted time 2021-12-30 Cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits6598Downloads332 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201708.00336 [pdf]

Morphological coevolution of the pygostyle and tail feathers in Early Cretaceous birds

WANG Wei; Jingmai K. O'CONNOR
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geology

The transformation from a long reptilian tail to a shortened tail ending in a pygostyle and accompanied by aerodynamic fanning rectrices is one of the most remarkable adaptations of early avian evolution. However, no fossils directly capture this transition, and information regarding the structural morphology and the early evolution of the pygostyle in Mesozoic birds and their integuments is relatively limited. Here we provide a review of the pygostyle morphology of Early Cretaceous birds with comparison to the structure in living birds. This study emphasizes the convergent evolution of distally co-ossified caudal vertebrae in non-avian maniraptorans and early birds. There further exist distinct differences in pygostyle morphology between Sapeornithiformes, Confuciusornithiformes, Enantiornithes, and Ornithuromorpha. The morphology of the pygostyle and rectrices in early ornithuromorphs appear similar to that of extant birds, whereas the pygostyle in more primitive birds does not appear morphologically capable of supporting the rectricial bulbs and musculature necessary to control an aerodynamic fan-shaped tail. The rectricial bulbs and rectricial fan appear to have coevolved with the plough-shaped pygostyle early in the evolution of the Ornithuromorpha. This study also shows that the confuciusornithiform pygostyle was more similar to that of enantiornithines than previously recognized, consistent with the presence of nearly identical ornamental tail feathers in both groups. 从兽脚类恐龙中爬行类的骨质长尾,到以尾综骨为终端,并附着具有空气动力学功能的扇状尾羽的短巧尾部,是早期鸟类演化中最显著的适应性转变之一。但能直接反映这一转变的化石记录匮乏,而且对中生代鸟类尾部形态结构,以及尾综骨和尾羽早期演化的认知也相对不足。在此对早白垩世鸟类的尾综骨形态予以概述并将其与现生鸟类尾部结构类比。本研究强调了非鸟手盗龙类中尾椎的联合骨化与早期鸟类的尾综骨实属趋同演化。本研究表明,会鸟形类、孔子鸟形类、反鸟类和今鸟型类的尾综骨结构存在明显差异。今鸟型类尾综骨和尾羽(舵羽)与现代鸟类的相似,而相对更原始的鸟类的尾综骨,从形态来看,并不能支持舵羽球状膨大和必要的肌肉附着来操控具有空气动力学功能的扇状尾羽。由此可见,舵羽球状膨大、舵羽扇面与犁铧状的尾综骨是在今鸟型类演化早期相伴相生的。相对于从前的认知,本研究还发现孔子鸟类的尾综骨与反鸟类的有更多相似之处,与二者都具有的几乎相同的装饰性尾羽相符合。

submitted time 2017-08-24 Cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits4375Downloads1621 Comment 0

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