摘要：By use of the global PPMLR Magnetohydrodynamics(MHD) model, a serial of quasi-steady-state numerical simulations were conducted to examine the modulation property of the interplanetary magnetic field clock angle theta on the solar wind energy input into the magnetosphere. All the simulations can be divided into seven groups according to different criteria of solar wind conditions. For each group, 37 numerical examples are analyzed, with the clock angle varying from 0�to 360�with an interval of 10� keeping the other solar wind parameters(such as the solar wind number density, velocity, and the magnetic field magnitude) unchanged. As expected, the solar wind energy input into the magnetosphere is modulated by the IMF clock angle. The axisymmetrical bell-shaped curve peaks at the clock angle of 180� However, the modulation effect remains invariant with varying other solar wind conditions. The function form of such an invariant modulation is found to be sin(0/2)2.70 + 0.25.
摘要：Derivation of equivalent current systems (ECS) from a global magnetospheric magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model is very useful in studying magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, ground induction effects, and space weather forecast. In this study we introduce an improved method to derive the ECS from a global MHD model, which takes account of the obliqueness of the magnetic field lines. By comparing the ECS derived from this improved method and the previous method, we find that the main characteristics of the ECS derived from the two methods are generally consistent with each other, but the eastward-westward component of the geomagnetic perturbation calculated from the ECS derived from the improved method is much stronger than that from the previous method. We then compare the geomagnetic perturbation as a function of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) clock angle calculated from the ECS derived from both methods with the observations. The comparison indicates that the improved method can improve the performance of the simulation. Furthermore, it is found that the incomplete counterbalance of the geomagnetic effect produced by the ionospheric poloidal current and field-aligned current (FAC) contributes to most of the eastward-westward component of geomagnetic perturbation.
摘要：As a follow-up study on Sun-to-Earth propagation of fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs), we examine the Sun-to-Earth characteristics of slow CMEs combining heliospheric imaging and in situ observations. Three events of particular interest, the 2010 June 16, 2011 March 25, and 2012 September 25 CMEs, are selected for this study. We compare slow CMEs with fast and intermediate-speed events, and obtain key results complementing the attempt of Liu et al. to create a general picture of CME Sun-to-Earth propagation: (1) the Sun-to-Earth propagation of a typical slow CME can be approximately described by two phases, a gradual acceleration out to about 20-30 solar radii, followed by a nearly invariant speed around the average solar wind level; (2) comparison between different types of CMEs indicates that faster CMEs tend to accelerate and decelerate more rapidly and have shorter cessation distances for the acceleration and deceleration; (3) both intermediate-speed and slow CMEs would have speeds comparable to the average solar wind level before reaching 1 au; (4) slow CMEs have a high potential to interact with other solar wind structures in the Sun-Earth space due to their slow motion, providing critical ingredients to enhance space weather; and (5) the slow CMEs studied here lack strong magnetic fields at the Earth but tend to preserve a flux-rope structure with an. axis generally perpendicular to the radial direction from the Sun. We also suggest a "best" strategy for the application of a triangulation concept in determining CME Sun-to-Earth kinematics, which helps to clarify confusions about CME geometry assumptions in the triangulation and to improve CME analysis and observations.
摘要：In 2012 March the Sun exhibited extraordinary activities. In particular, the active region NOAA AR 11429 emitted a series of large coronal mass ejections (CMEs) which were imaged by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory as it rotated with the Sun from the east to west. These sustained eruptions are expected to generate a global shell of disturbed material sweeping through the heliosphere. A cluster of shocks and interplanetary CMEs were observed near the Earth, and are propagated outward from 1 AU using an MHD model. The transient streams interact with each other, which erases memory of the source and results in a large merged interaction region (MIR) with a preceding shock. The MHD model predicts that the shock and MIR would reach 120 AU around 2013 April 22, which agrees well with the period of radio emissions and the time of a transient disturbance in galactic cosmic rays detected by Voyager 1. These results are important for understanding the "fate" of CMEs in the outer heliosphere and provide confidence that the heliopause is located around 120 AU from the Sun.