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1. chinaXiv:202103.00126 [pdf]

Interaction between shrub encroachment and water infiltration on a hillslope at the typical Steppe

Si-Yi Zhang; Zhi-Hua Zhang; Bin He; Zhi-Yun Jiang; Xiao-Yan Li
Subjects: Geosciences >> Hydrology

The interaction between the surface hydrologic cycle and the shrub-encroached landscape at different slope positions remains poorly investigated. This study aims to explore the interaction between the water infiltration patterns affected by shrub encroachment at different hillslope positions. Soil water content and temperature were continuously measured at 10-min intervals at four or five depths under shrub patches and the grass matrix at four slope positions of a Caragana microphylla encroached hillslope from July 2009 to May 2013. The rainfall and meltwater infiltrations were estimated based on above data. Results showed that the rainfall infiltration ratios (IRs) at the grass matrix were as high as 0.78±0.08, except at the lower site, where it was only 0.47. The IRs of shrub patches increased from 0.38 at the top site to 0.77 at the lower site. The IRs were higher at the grass matrix than that at the shrub downslope edges at the top, upper, and middle sites of the hillslope due to the raised microtopography of the shrub mounds. However, at the lower site, IR was higher at the shrub patch than that at the grass matrix than due to more upper slope runoff input and higher infiltration capacity at the shrub patches. The preferential flow was not an important factor influencing the redistribution of water resources on the slope. Snow and ice were blown up by wind and accumulated in the shrub patches and their lees resulted higher water input to the shrub patches than that in the grass matrix during snowy years. Shrub encroachment changed the microtopography, soil property under different canopy and slope positions, and further affected the surface hydrological processes. The feedbacks between shrub encroachment and water infiltration varied at different sites of the hillslope and affected the development of shrub patches.

submitted time 2021-03-17 Hits364Downloads187 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202101.00056 [pdf]

Freeze–thaw effects on erosion process in loess slope under simulated rainfall

SU Yuanyi; LI Peng; REN Zongping; XIAO Lie; ZHANG Hui
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Seasonal freeze–thaw processes have led to severe soil erosion in the middle and high latitudes. The area affected by freeze–thaw erosion in China exceeds 13% of the national territory. So understanding the effect of freeze–thaw on erosion process is of great significance for soil and water conservation as well as for ecological engineering. In this study, we designed simulated rainfall experiments to investigate soil erosion processes under two soil conditions, unfrozen slope (UFS) and frozen slope (FS), and three rainfall intensities of 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 mm/min. The results showed that the initial runoff time of FS occurred much earlier than that of the UFS. Under the same rainfall intensity, the runoff of FS is 1.17–1.26 times that of UFS; and the sediment yield of FS is 6.48–10.49 times that of UFS. With increasing rainfall time, rills were produced on the slope. After the appearance of the rills, the sediment yield on the FS accounts for 74%–86% of the total sediment yield. Rill erosion was the main reason for the increase in soil erosion rate on FS, and the reduction in water percolation resulting from frozen layers was one of the important factors leading to the advancement of rills on slope. A linear relationship existed between the cumulative runoff and the sediment yield of UFS and FS (R2>0.97, P<0.01). The average mean weight diameter (MWD) on the slope erosion particles was as follows: UFS0.9 (73.84 μm)>FS0.6 (72.30 μm)>UFS1.2 (72.23 μm)>substrate (71.23 μm)>FS1.2 (71.06 μm)>FS0.9 (70.72 μm). During the early stage of the rainfall, the MWD of the FS was relatively large. However, during the middle to late rainfall, the particle composition gradually approached that of the soil substrate. Under different rainfall intensities, the mean soil erodibility (MK) of the FS was 7.22 times that of the UFS. The ratio of the mean regression coefficient C2 (MC2) between FS and UFS was roughly correspondent with MK. Therefore, the parameter C2 can be used to evaluate soil erodibility after the appearance of the rills. This article explored the influence mechanism of freeze–thaw effects on loess soil erosion and provided a theoretical basis for further studies on soil erosion in the loess hilly regions.

submitted time 2021-01-15 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits322Downloads180 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202011.00127 [pdf]

Assessing the effects of vegetation and precipitation on soil erosion in the Three-River Headwaters Region of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China

HE,Qian; DAI,Xiao'ai; CHEN,Shiqi
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Soil erosion in the Three-River Headwaters Region (TRHR) of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in China has a significant impact on local economic development and ecological environment. Vegetation and precipitation are considered to be the main factors for the variation in soil erosion. However, it is a big challenge to analyze the impacts of precipitation and vegetation respectively as well as their combined effects on soil erosion from the pixel scale. To assess the influences of vegetation and precipitation on the variation of soil erosion from 2005 to 2015, we employed the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model to evaluate soil erosion in the TRHR, and then developed a method using the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index model (LMDI) which can exponentially decompose the influencing factors, to calculate the contribution values of the vegetation cover factor (C factor) and the rainfall erosivity factor (R factor) to the variation of soil erosion from the pixel scale. In general, soil erosion in the TRHR was alleviated from 2005 to 2015, of which about 54.95% of the area where soil erosion decreased was caused by the combined effects of the C factor and the R factor, and 41.31% was caused by the change in the R factor. There were relatively few areas with increased soil erosion modulus, of which 64.10% of the area where soil erosion increased was caused by the change in the C factor, and 23.88% was caused by the combined effects of the C factor and the R factor. Therefore, the combined effects of the C factor and the R factor were regarded as the main driving force for the decrease of soil erosion, while the C factor was the dominant factor for the increase of soil erosion. The area with decreased soil erosion caused by the C factor (12.10×103 km2) was larger than the area with increased soil erosion caused by the C factor (8.30×103 km2), which indicated that vegetation had a positive effect on soil erosion. This study generally put forward a new method for quantitative assessment of the impacts of the influencing factors on soil erosion, and also provided a scientific basis for the regional control of soil erosion.

submitted time 2020-11-25 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2915Downloads348 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202010.00019 [pdf]

Applying seepage modeling to improve sediment yield predictions in contour ridge systems

LIU,Qianjin; MA,Liang; ZHANG,Hanyu
Subjects: Geosciences >> History of Geosciences

Contour ridge systems may lead to seepage that could result in serious soil erosion. Modeling soil erosion under seepage conditions in a contour ridge system has been overlooked in most current soil erosion models. To address the importance of seepage in soil erosion modeling, a total of 23 treatments with 3 factors, row grade, field slope and ridge height, in 5 gradients were arranged in an orthogonal rotatable central composite design. The second-order polynomial regression model for predicting the sediment yield was improved by using the measured or predicted seepage discharge as an input factor, which increased the coefficient of determination (R2) from 0.743 to 0.915 or 0.893. The improved regression models combined with the measured seepage discharge had a lower P (0.007) compared to those combined with the predicted seepage discharge (P=0.016). With the measured seepage discharge incorporated, some significant (P<0.050) effects and interactions of influential factors on sediment yield were detected, including the row grade and its interactions with the field slope, ridge height and seepage discharge, the quadratic terms of the field slope and its interactions with the row grade and seepage discharge. In the regression model with the predicted seepage discharge as an influencing factor, only the interaction between row grade and seepage discharge significantly affected the sediment yield. The regression model incorporated with predicted seepage discharge may be expressed simply and can be used effectively when measured seepage discharge data are not available.

submitted time 2020-10-20 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2256Downloads416 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201903.00241 [pdf]

Spatial and temporal patterns of drought in Zambia

Brigadier LIBANDA; ZHENG Mie
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Drought acutely affects economic sectors, natural habitats and communities. Understanding the past spatial and temporal patterns of drought is crucial because it facilitates the forecasting of future drought occurrences and informs decision-making processes for possible adaptive measures. This is especially important in view of a changing climate. This study employed the World Meteorological Organization (WMO)-recommended standardized precipitation index (SPI) to investigate the spatial and temporal patterns of drought in Zambia from 1960 to 2016. The relationship between the occurrence of consecutive dry days (CDD; consecutive days with less than 1 mm of precipitation) and SPI was also investigated. Horizontal wind vectors at 850 hPa during the core of the rainy season (December–February) were examined to ascertain the patterns of flow during years of extreme and severe drought; and these were contrasted with the patterns of flow in 2007, which was a generally wet year. Pressure vertical velocity was also investigated. Based on the gamma distribution, SPI successfully categorized extremely dry (with a SPI value less than or equal to –2.0) years over Zambia as 1992 and 2015, a severely dry (–1.9 to –1.5) year as 1995, moderately dry (–1.4 to –1.0) years as 1972, 1980, 1987, 1999 and 2005, and 26 near normal years (–0.9 to 0.9). The occurrence of CDD was found to be strongly negatively correlated with SPI with a coefficient of –0.6. Further results suggest that, during wet years, Zambia is influenced by a clockwise circulating low-pressure zone over the south-eastern Angola, a second such zone over the northern and eastern parts, and a third over the Indian Ocean. In stark contrast, years of drought were characterized by an anti-clockwise circulating high-pressure zone over the south-western parts of Zambia, constraining precipitation activities over the country. Further, wet years were characterized by negative pressure vertical velocity anomalies, signifying ascending motion; while drought years were dominated by positive anomalies, signifying descending motion, which suppresses precipitation. These patterns can be used to forecast drought over Zambia and aid in strategic planning to limit the potential damage of drought.

submitted time 2019-03-28 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits7883Downloads1272 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201810.00183 [pdf]

Effect of soil management on soil erosion on sloping farmland during crop growth stages under a large-scale rainfall simulation experiment

WANG Linhua; WANG Yafeng; Keesstra SASKIA; Cerdà ARTEMI; MA Bo; WU Faqi
Subjects: Geosciences >> History of Geosciences

Soil erosion on farmland is a critical environmental issue and the main source of sediment in the Yellow River, China. Thus, great efforts have been made to reduce runoff and soil loss by restoring vegetation on abandoned farmland. However, few studies have investigated runoff and soil loss from sloping farmland during crop growth season. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of soil management on runoff and soil loss on sloping farmland during crop growth season. We tested different soybean growth stages (i.e., seedling stage (R1), initial blossoming stage (R2), full flowering stage (R3), pod bearing stage (R4), and initial filling stage (R5)) and soil management practice (one plot applied hoeing tillage (HT) before each rainfall event, whereas the other received no treatment (NH)) by applying simulated rainfall at an intensity of 80 mm/h. Results showed that runoff and soil loss both decreased and infiltration amount increased in successive soybean growth stages under both treatments. Compared with NH plot, there was less runoff and higher infiltration amount from HT plot. However, soil loss from HT plot was larger than that from NH plot in R1–R3, but lower in R4 and R5. In the early growth stages, hoeing tillage was effective for reducing runoff and enhancing rainfall infiltration. By contrast, hoeing tillage enhanced soil and water conservation during the late growth stages. The total soil loss from HT plot (509.0 g/m2) was 11.1% higher than that from NH plot (457.9 g/m2) in R1–R5. However, the infiltration amount from HT plot (313.9 mm) was 18.4% higher than that from NH plot (265.0 mm) and the total runoff volume from HT plot was 49.7% less than that from NH plot. These results indicated that crop vegetation can also act as a type of vegetation cover and play an important role on sloping farmland. Thus, adopting rational soil management in crop planting on sloping farmland can effectively reduce runoff and soil loss, as well as maximize rainwater infiltration during crop growth period.

submitted time 2018-10-29 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits3704Downloads1088 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:201712.00326 [pdf]

Potential of rooftop rainwater harvesting to meet outdoor water demand in arid regions

TAMADDUN, Kazi ; KALRA, Ajay ; AHMAD, Sajjad
Subjects: Geosciences >> Other Disciplines of Geosciences

The feasibility of rooftop rainwater harvesting (RRWH) as an alternative source of water to meet the outdoor water demand in nine states of the U. S. was evaluated using a system dynamics model developed in Systems Thinking, Experimental Learning Laboratory with Animation. The state of Arizona was selected to evaluate the effects of the selected model parameters on the efficacy of RRWH since among the nine states the arid region of Arizona showed the least potential of meeting the outdoor water demand with rain harvested water. The analyses were conducted on a monthly basis across a 10-year projected period from 2015 to 2024. The results showed that RRWH as a potential source of water was highly sensitive to certain model parameters such as the outdoor water demand, the use of desert landscaping, and the percentage of existing houses with RRWH. A significant difference (as high as 37.5%) in rainwater potential was observed between the projected wet and dry climate conditions in Arizona. The analysis of the dynamics of the storage tanks suggested that a 1.0–2.0 m3 rainwater barrel, on an average, can store approximately 80% of the monthly rainwater generated from the rooftops in Arizona, even across the high seasonal variation. This interactive model can be used as a quick estimator of the amount of water that could be generated, stored, and utilized through RRWH systems in the U.S. under different climate conditions. The findings of such comprehensive analyses may help regional policymakers, especially in arid regions, to develop a sustainable water management infrastructure.

submitted time 2017-12-18 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits3205Downloads878 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:201712.00398 [pdf]

Influences of sand cover on erosion processes of loess slopes based on rainfall simulation experiments

ZHANG Xiang; LI Zhanbin; LI Peng; TANG Shanshan; WANG Tian; ZHANG Hui
Subjects: Geosciences >> Other Disciplines of Geosciences

Aeolian-fluvial interplay erosion regions are subject to intense soil erosion and are of particular concern in loess areas of northwestern China. Understanding the composition, distribution, and transport processes of eroded sediments in these regions is of considerable scientific significance for controlling soil erosion. In this study, based on laboratory rainfall simulation experiments, we analyzed rainfall-induced erosion processes on sand-covered loess slopes (SS) with different sand cover patterns (including length and thickness) and uncovered loess slopes (LS) to investigate the influences of sand cover on erosion processes of loess slopes in case regions of aeolian-fluvial erosion. The grain-size curves of eroded sediments were fitted using the Weibull function. Compositions of eroded sediments under different sand cover patterns and rainfall intensities were analyzed to explore sediment transport modes of SS. The influences of sand cover amount and pattern on erosion processes of loess slopes were also discussed. The results show that sand cover on loess slopes influences the proportion of loess erosion and that the compositions of eroded sediments vary between SS and LS. Sand cover on loess slopes transforms silt erosion into sand erosion by reducing splash erosion and changing the rainfall-induced erosion processes. The percentage of eroded sand from SS in the early stage of runoff and sediment generation is always higher than that in the late stage. Sand cover on loess slopes aggravates loess erosion, not only by adding sand as additional eroded sediments but also by increasing the amount of eroded loess, compared with the loess slopes without sand cover. The influence of sand cover pattern on runoff yield and the amount of eroded sediments is larger than that of sand cover amount. Furthermore, given the same sand cover pattern, a thicker sand cover could increase sand erosion while a thinner sand cover could aggravate loess erosion. This difference explains the existence of intense erosion on slopes that are thinly covered with sand in regions where aeolian erosion and fluvial erosion interact.

submitted time 2017-12-08 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2817Downloads992 Comment 0

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