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1. chinaXiv:201906.00042 [pdf]

Effect of pruning intensity on soil moisture and water use efficiency in jujube (Ziziphus jujube Mill.) plantations in the hilly Loess Plateau Region, China

JIN Shanshan
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Jujube (Ziziphus jujube Mill.) is a traditional economic forest crop and is widely cultivated in hilly areas of the Loess Plateau, China. However, soil desiccation was discovered in jujube plantations. Pruning is recognized as a water-saving method that can reduces soil water consumption. In this study, we monitored the jujube plots with control (CK), light (C1), medium (C2) and high (C3) pruning intensities during the jujube growing period of 2012–2015 to explore the effect of pruning intensity on soil moisture and water use efficiency (WUE) of jujube plantations in the hilly Loess Plateau Region. The results showed that pruning is an effective method for soil water conservation in jujube plantations. Soil moisture increased with increasing pruning intensity during the jujube growing period of 2012–2015. C1, C2 and C3 pruning intensities increased soil water storage by 6.1–18.3, 14.4–40.0 and 24.3–63.3 mm, respectively, compared to CK pruning intensity. Pruning promoted soil moisture infiltration to deeper soil layer. Soil moisture infiltrated to soil depths of 240, 280 and >300 cm under C3 pruning intensity, 220, 260 and 260 cm under C2 pruning intensity, 200, 240 and 220 cm under C1 pruning intensity, and 180, 200 and 160 cm under CK pruning intensity in 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively. Soil water deficit was alleviated by higher pruning intensity. In 2013–2015, soil water change was positive under C2 (6.4 mm) and C3 (26.8 mm) pruning intensities but negative under C1 (–20.5 mm) and CK (–40.6 mm) pruning intensities. Moreover, pruning significantly improved fresh fruit yield and WUE of jujube plants. Fresh fruit yields were highest under C1 pruning intensity with the values of 6897.1–13,059.3 kg/hm2, which were 2758.4–4712.8, 385.7–1432.1 and 802.8–2331.5 kg/hm2 higher than those under CK, C2, and C3 pruning intensities during the jujube growing period of 2012–2015, respectively. However, C3 pruning intensity had the highest WUE values of 2.92–3.13 kg/m3, which were 1.6–2.0, 1.1–1.2 and 1.0–1.1 times greater than those under CK, C1 and C2 pruning intensities, respectively. Therefore, C3 pruning intensity is recommended to jujube plantations for its economic and ecological benefits. These results provide an alternative strategy to mitigate soil desiccation in jujube plantations in the hilly Loess Plateau Region, which is critical for sustainable cultivation of economic forest trees in this region.

submitted time 2019-06-20 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits7922Downloads529 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201809.00164 [pdf]

Mulching mode and planting density affect canopy interception loss of rainfall and water use efficiency of dryland maize on the Loess Plateau of China

ZHENG Jing; FAN Junliang; ZHANG Fucang; YAN Shicheng; GUO Jinjin; CHEN Dongfeng; LI Zhijun
Subjects: Geosciences >> History of Geosciences

High and efficient use of limited rainwater resources is of crucial importance for the crop production in arid and semi-arid areas. To investigate the effects of different soil and crop management practices (i.e., mulching mode treatments: flat cultivation with non-mulching, flat cultivation with straw mulching, plastic-covered ridge with bare furrow and plastic-covered ridge with straw-covered furrow; and planting density treatments: low planting density of 45,000 plants/hm2, medium planting density of 67,500 plants/hm2 and high planting density of 90,000 plants/hm2) on rainfall partitioning by dryland maize canopy, especially the resulted net rainfall input beneath the maize canopy, we measured the gross rainfall, throughfall and stemflow at different growth stages of dryland maize in 2015 and 2016 on the Loess Plateau of China. The canopy interception loss was estimated by the water balance method. Soil water storage, leaf area index, grain yield (as well as it components) and water use efficiency of dryland maize were measured or calculated. Results showed that the cumulative throughfall, cumulative stemflow and cumulative canopy interception loss during the whole growing season accounted for 42.3%–77.5%, 15.1%–36.3% and 7.4%–21.4% of the total gross rainfall under different treatments, respectively. Soil mulching could promote the growth and development of dryland maize and enhance the capability of stemflow production and canopy interception loss, thereby increasing the relative stemflow and relative canopy interception loss and reducing the relative throughfall. The relative stemflow and relative canopy interception loss generally increased with increasing planting density, while the relative throughfall decreased with increasing planting density. During the two experimental years, mulching mode had no significant influence on net rainfall due to the compensation between throughfall and stemflow, whereas planting density significantly affected net rainfall. The highest grain yield and water use efficiency of dryland maize were obtained under the combination of medium planting density of 67,500 plants/hm2 and mulching mode of plastic-covered ridge with straw-covered furrow. Soil mulching can reduce soil evaporation and retain more soil water for dryland maize without reducing the net rainfall input beneath the maize canopy, which may alleviate the contradiction between high soil water consumption and insufficient rainfall input of the soil. In conclusion, the application of medium planting density (67,500 plants/hm2) under plastic-covered ridge with bare furrow is recommended for increasing dryland maize production on the Loess Plateau of China.

submitted time 2018-09-18 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2381Downloads594 Comment 0

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