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1. chinaXiv:202101.00074 [pdf]

Long-term variations in runoff of the Syr Darya River Basin under climate change and human activities

Sanim BISSENBAYEVA; Jilili ABUDUWAILI; Assel SAPAROVA; Toqeer AHMED
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

In this study, we analyzed the hydrological and meteorological data from the Syr Darya River Basin during the period of 1930–2015 to investigate variations in river runoff and the impacts of climate change and human activities on river runoff. The Syr Darya River, which is supplied by snow and glacier meltwater upstream, is an important freshwater source for Central Asia, as nearly half of the population is concentrated in this area. River runoff in this arid region is sensitive to climate change and human activities. Therefore, estimation of the climatic and hydrological changes and the quantification of the impacts of climate change and human activities on river runoff are of great concern and important for regional water resources management. The long-term trends of hydrological time series from the selected 11 hydrological stations in the Syr Darya River Basin were examined by non-parametric methods, including the Pettitt change point test and Mann-Kendall trend tests. It was found that 8 out of 11 hydrological stations showed significant downward trends in river runoff. Change of river runoff variations occurred in the year around 1960. Moreover, during the study period (1930–2015), annual mean temperature, annual precipitation, and annual potential evapotranspiration in the river basin increased substantially. We employed hydrological sensitivity method to evaluate the impacts of climate change and human activities on river runoff based on precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. It was estimated that human activities accounted for over 82.6%–98.7% of the reduction in river runoff, mainly owing to water withdrawal for irrigation purpose. The observed variations in river runoff can subsequently lead to adverse ecological consequences from an ecological and regional water resources management perspective.

submitted time 2021-01-22 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits946Downloads539 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202006.00129 [pdf]

干旱区地表温度和热岛效应演变研究-以宁夏沿黄城市带为例

孙灏; 马立茹; 蔡创创
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

宁夏沿黄城市带位于宁夏东北部,不仅是干旱地区地理研究的重点区域,也是宁夏经济发展的核心区域。本文基于 2000—2018 年的MODIS地表温度、土地覆盖类型以及植被覆盖率数据,通过计算热岛比例指数(URI),利用Mann-Kendall非参数检验及Sen's斜率估计法,对宁夏沿黄城市带近 20 a白天和夜间的地表温度(LST)和热岛效应时间变化进行分析。结果表明:近20 a来,宁夏沿黄城市带大部分地区LST变化不显著,但在植被覆盖率增加区域,白天LST显著减小而夜间LST显著上升;植被覆盖率减小区域与之相反;夜间LST变化幅度强于白天。宁夏沿黄城市带的热岛效应通常在白天较弱、在夜间较强;白天和夜间时刻的城市热岛效应在一年内呈现不同的季节变化特点,白天春冬较强,夜间夏季较强;过去近20 a,宁夏沿黄城市带白天热岛效应呈现稍微减弱趋势,夜间热岛效应呈现稍微增强趋势,但变化趋势均不显著。从植被覆盖率和地物类型两个影响因素的研究表明,植被覆盖率是影响地表温度变化的重要因素,城建区与郊区主要地物温差的改变是城市热岛强度变化的重要原因。本文从长时间序列变化的角度,详细分析了干旱区城市热岛的特征和变化原因,可为干旱区城市热岛带来的环境问题治理提供参考,也为研究干旱区热岛提供了借鉴。

submitted time 2020-06-12 From cooperative journals:《干旱区地理》 Hits7077Downloads935 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201911.00016 [pdf]

阿勒泰地区植被覆盖度及ET对气温变化的响应

韩飞飞; 闫俊杰; 郭斌
Subjects: Geosciences >> Cartography

研究气温对植被覆盖度和ET (Evapotranspiration,ET)的影响,对干旱区应对气候变化、维系生态系统稳定具有重要意义。基于阿勒泰地区及周边7个气象站,CRU数据集中的气温数据及MODIS ET数据,采用Mann-Kendall非参数检验、植被盖度反演等方法,对阿勒泰地区气温变化对植被覆盖度及ET的影响进行了研究。结果表明:(1)在1901—2016年过去的116 a间,阿勒泰地区年平均气温以0.18 ℃·(10 a)-1速率增加,在1982年由突变前的2.2 ℃增加到突变后的3.5 ℃。(2)2000—2017年阿勒泰地区植被覆盖度变化的空间差异明显,植被覆盖度增加的面积与降低的面积总体相当;全区66.71%的区域植被覆盖度变化与气温呈负相关,而呈正相关的比例仅占18.55%,且全区气温变暖而盖度降低区域的占比达31.71%。(3)2000—2016年阿勒泰地区ET总体呈降低趋势,整个区域61.65%的面积温度降低、ET降低,而19.92%的区域表现为温度增加而植被ET降低。

submitted time 2019-11-15 From cooperative journals:《干旱区地理》 Hits3545Downloads1069 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201909.00052 [pdf]

近55 a内蒙古极端降水指数时空变化特征

春兰; 秦福莹; 宝鲁; 那音太; 包玉海; 包山虎
Subjects: Geosciences >> Other Disciplines of Geosciences

基于内蒙古100个气象站点1960—2014年日降水数据,选取气候变化监测与指数专家组(ETCCDI)推荐的9个极端降水指数,采用Sen’s斜率法和Mann-Kendall非参数统计检验方法以及空间地统计方法,研究了极端降水指数时空演变特征。结果表明:研究区区域平均的全部极端降水指数均呈不同程度的下降趋势,且年际波动显著;分区的年际趋势有所差异,即东部地区潮湿日数(NW)呈增加趋势,其余极端降水指数均呈减少趋势,其中持续干燥指数(CDD)呈显著下降趋势(P<0.05);中部地区所有极端降水指数均呈减少趋势,其中年总降水量(PRCPTOT)减少趋势较明显;西部地区持续湿润指数(CWD)、强降水量(R95)、单日最大降水量(Rx1day)、5日最大降水量(Rx5day)呈减少趋势,其余指数均呈增加趋势。从极端降水指数变化趋势的空间分布特征来看,区域差异显著,总体上呈下降趋势的站点主要分布于内蒙古东部和中部地区,而呈上升趋势的站点主要分布于内蒙古东北部和西部地区。

submitted time 2019-09-11 From cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits1325Downloads753 Comment 0

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