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1. chinaXiv:201712.00322 [pdf]

Decomposition characteristics of organic materials and their effects on labile and recalcitrant organic carbon fractions in a semi-arid soil under plastic mulch and drip irrigation

Wu, Jinggui
Subjects: Geosciences >> History of Geosciences

Labile organic carbon (LC) and recalcitrant organic carbon (RC) are two major fractions of soil organic carbon (SOC) and play a critical role in organic carbon turnover and sequestration. The aims of this study were to evaluate the variations of LC and RC in a semi-arid soil (Inner Mongolia, China) under plastic mulch and drip irrigation after the application of organic materials (OMs), and to explore the effects of OMs from various sources on LC and RC by probing the decomposition characteristics of OMs using in-situ nylon mesh bags burying method. The field experiment included seven treatments, i.e., chicken manure (CM), sheep manure (SM), mushroom residue (MR), maize straw (MS), fodder grass (FG), tree leaves (TL) and no OMs as a control (CK). Soil LC and RC were separated by Huygens D’s method (particle size-density), and the average soil mass recovery rate and carbon recovery rate were above 95%, which indicated this method was suitable for carbon pools size analysis. The LC and RC contents significantly (P<0.01) increased after the application of OMs. Moreover, LC and RC contents were 3.2%–8.6% and 5.0%–9.4% higher in 2016 than in 2015. The applications of CM and SM significantly increased (P<0.01) LC content and LC/SOC ratio, whereas they were the lowest after the application of TL. However, SOC and RC contents were significantly higher (P<0.01) after the applications of TL and MS. The correlation analysis indicated the decomposition rate of OMs was positively related with LC content and LC/SOC ratio. In addition, lignin, polyphenol, WOM (total water-soluble organic matter), WHA (water-soluble humic acid), HSL (humic-like substance) and HAL (humic acid-like) contents in initial OMs played important roles in SOC and RC. In-situ nylon mesh bags burying experiment indicated the decomposition rates of CM, SM and MS were significantly higher than those of MR, FG, and TL. Furthermore, MS could result in more lignin derivatives, WHA, and HAL polymers in shorter time during the decomposition process. In conclusion, the application of MS in the semi-arid soil under a long-term plastic mulch and drip irrigation condition could not only improve soil fertility, but also enhance soil carbon sequestration.

submitted time 2017-12-18 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits1491Downloads806 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201712.00323 [pdf]

Effects of long-term cultivation practices and nitrogen fertilization rates on carbon stock in a calcareous soil on the Chinese Loess Plateau

Chen, Zhujun
Subjects: Geosciences >> History of Geosciences

Soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) are important C pools in the Loess Plateau of Northwest China, however, variations of SOC and SIC stocks under different cultivation practices and nitrogen (N) fertilization rates are not clear in this area. A long-term field experiment started in June 2003 was conducted to investigate the SOC and SIC stocks in a calcareous soil of the Chinese Loess Plateau under four cultivation practices, i.e., fallow (FA), conventional cultivation (CC), straw mulch (SM), and plastic film-mulched ridge and straw-mulched furrow (RF), in combination with three N fertilization rates, i.e., 0 (N0), 120 (N120), and 240 (N240) kg N/hm2. Results indicate that the crop straw addition treatments (SM and RF) increased the contents of soil microbial biomass C (SMBC) and SOC, and the SOC stock increased by 10.1%–13.3% at the upper 20 cm soil depth in comparison to the 8-year fallow (FA) treatment. Meanwhile, SIC stock significantly increased by 19% at the entire tested soil depth range (0–100 cm) under all crop cultivation practices in comparison to that of soil exposed to the long-term fallow treatment, particularly at the upper 60 cm soil depth. Furthermore, moderate N fertilizer application (120 kg N/hm2) increased SOC stock at the upper 40 cm soil depth, whereas SIC stock decreased as the N fertilization rate increased. We conclude that the combined application of crop organic residues and moderate N fertilization rate could facilitate the sequestrations of SOC and SIC in the calcareous soil.

submitted time 2017-12-18 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits1158Downloads761 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201712.00324 [pdf]

Determinants and rates of land degradation: Application of stationary time-series model to data from a semi-arid environment in Kenya

Mganga, Kevin; Nyariki, Dickson
Subjects: Geosciences >> History of Geosciences

The causes of land degradation in the African drylands have been shown to vary. Some researchers consider climate to be the major contributor to degradation, with anthropogenic factors playing a minor role. Others reverse the significance of these two factors. A third group attributes land degradation to climate and anthropogenic factors equally. This study was undertaken to establish the factors influencing land degradation in a semi-arid environment in southeastern Kenya and the rate of change in vegetation types for a period of 35 years (1973–2007). The reduction in grassland cover was used as an indicator of land degradation. Causes of land degradation were determined by a multiple regression analysis. A log-linear regression analysis was used to establish the rate of vegetation change. The multiple and log-linear regression analyses showed: (1) woody vegetation, livestock population and cultivated area to be the main contributors of reduction in grassland cover in the area, and (2) an increase in undesirable woody species, livestock population and cultivated area had a significant (P<0.05) negative effect on grassland vegetation. Increased human population, low amounts of rainfall and drought showed no significant negative effect on grassland vegetation cover. In conclusion, human and livestock population growth and increased agricultural land have contributed to intensive crop cultivation and overgrazing in the semi-arid lands. This overuse of the semi-arid rangelands has worsened the deterioration of the natural grassland vegetation.

submitted time 2017-12-18 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits1182Downloads739 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201712.00325 [pdf]

Reconstruction of hydrological changes based on tree-ring data of the Haba River, northwestern China

Zhang, Tongwen; Yuan, Yujiang
Subjects: Geosciences >> History of Geosciences

Reconstructing the hydrological change based on dendrohydrological data has important implications for understanding the dynamic distribution and evolution pattern of a given river. The widespread, long-living coniferous forests on the Altay Mountains provide a good example for carrying out the dendrohydrological studies. In this study, a regional composite tree-ring width chronology developed by Larix sibirica Ledeb. and Picea obovata Ledeb. was used to reconstruct a 301-year annual (from preceding July to succeeding June) streamflow for the Haba River, which originates in the southern Altay Mountains, Xinjiang, China. Results indicated that the reconstructed streamflow series and the observations were fitting well, and explained 47.5% of the variation in the observed streamflow of 1957–2008. Moreover, floods and droughts in 1949–2000 were precisely captured by the streamflow reconstruction. Based on the frequencies of the wettest/driest years and decades, we identified the 19th century as the century with the largest occurrence of hydrological fluctuations for the last 300 years. After applying a 21-year moving average, we found five wet (1724–1758, 1780–1810, 1822–1853, 1931–1967, and 1986–2004) and four dry (1759–1779, 1811–1821, 1854–1930, and 1968–1985) periods in the streamflow reconstruction. Furthermore, four periods (1770–1796, 1816–1836, 1884–1949, and 1973–1997) identified by the streamflow series had an obvious increasing trend. The increasing trend of streamflow since the 1970s was the biggest in the last 300 years and coincided with the recent warming-wetting trend in northwestern China. A significant correlation between streamflow and precipitation in the Altay Mountains indicated that the streamflow reconstruction contained not only local, but also broad-scale, hydro-climatic signals. The 24-year, 12-year, and 2.2–4.5-year cycles of the reconstruction revealed that the streamflow variability of the Haba River may be influenced by solar activity and the atmosphere–ocean system.

submitted time 2017-12-18 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits1036Downloads652 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201712.00326 [pdf]

Potential of rooftop rainwater harvesting to meet outdoor water demand in arid regions

TAMADDUN, Kazi ; KALRA, Ajay ; AHMAD, Sajjad
Subjects: Geosciences >> Other Disciplines of Geosciences

The feasibility of rooftop rainwater harvesting (RRWH) as an alternative source of water to meet the outdoor water demand in nine states of the U. S. was evaluated using a system dynamics model developed in Systems Thinking, Experimental Learning Laboratory with Animation. The state of Arizona was selected to evaluate the effects of the selected model parameters on the efficacy of RRWH since among the nine states the arid region of Arizona showed the least potential of meeting the outdoor water demand with rain harvested water. The analyses were conducted on a monthly basis across a 10-year projected period from 2015 to 2024. The results showed that RRWH as a potential source of water was highly sensitive to certain model parameters such as the outdoor water demand, the use of desert landscaping, and the percentage of existing houses with RRWH. A significant difference (as high as 37.5%) in rainwater potential was observed between the projected wet and dry climate conditions in Arizona. The analysis of the dynamics of the storage tanks suggested that a 1.0–2.0 m3 rainwater barrel, on an average, can store approximately 80% of the monthly rainwater generated from the rooftops in Arizona, even across the high seasonal variation. This interactive model can be used as a quick estimator of the amount of water that could be generated, stored, and utilized through RRWH systems in the U.S. under different climate conditions. The findings of such comprehensive analyses may help regional policymakers, especially in arid regions, to develop a sustainable water management infrastructure.

submitted time 2017-12-18 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2812Downloads673 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201712.00327 [pdf]

Monitoring desertification processes in Mongolian Plateau using MODIS tasseled cap transformation and TGSI time series

LIU, Qingsheng; LIU, Gaohuan; HUANG, Chong
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Most remote sensing studies assess the desertification using vegetation monitoring method. But it has the insufficient precision of vegetation monitoring for the limited vegetation cover of the desertification region. Therefore, it offers an alternative approach for the desertification research to assess sand dune and sandy land change using remote sensing in the desertification region. In this study, the indices derived from the well-known tasseled cap transformation (TCT), tasseled cap angle (TCA), disturbance index (DI), process indicator (PI), and topsoil grain size index (TGSI) were integrated to monitor and assess the desertification at the thirteen study sites including sand dunes and sandy lands distributed in the the Mongolian Plateau (MP) from 2000 to 2015. A decision tree was used to classify the desertification on a regional scale. The average overall accuracy of 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015 desertification classification was higher than 90%. Results from this study indicated that integration of the advantages of TCA, DI and TGSI could better assess the desertification. During the last 16 years, Badain Jaran Desert, Tengger Desert, and Ulan Buh Desert showed a relative stabilization. Otindag Sandy Land and the deserts of Khar Nuur, Ereen Nuur, Tsagan Nuur, Khongoryn Els, Hobq, and Mu Us showed a slow increasing of desertification, whereas Bayan Gobi, Horqin and Hulun Buir sandy lands showed a slow decreasing of desertification. Compared with the other 11 sites, the fine sand dunes occupied the majority of the Tengger Desert, and the coarse sandy land occupied the majority of the Horqin Sandy Land. Our findings on a three or four years’ periodical fluctuated changes in the desertification may possibly reflect changing precipitation and soil moisture in the MP. Further work to link the TCA, DI, TGSI, and PI values with the desertification characteristics is recommended to set the thresholds and improve the assessment accuracy with field investigation.

submitted time 2017-12-18 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits1439Downloads714 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:201712.00398 [pdf]

Influences of sand cover on erosion processes of loess slopes based on rainfall simulation experiments

ZHANG Xiang; LI Zhanbin; LI Peng; TANG Shanshan; WANG Tian; ZHANG Hui
Subjects: Geosciences >> Other Disciplines of Geosciences

Aeolian-fluvial interplay erosion regions are subject to intense soil erosion and are of particular concern in loess areas of northwestern China. Understanding the composition, distribution, and transport processes of eroded sediments in these regions is of considerable scientific significance for controlling soil erosion. In this study, based on laboratory rainfall simulation experiments, we analyzed rainfall-induced erosion processes on sand-covered loess slopes (SS) with different sand cover patterns (including length and thickness) and uncovered loess slopes (LS) to investigate the influences of sand cover on erosion processes of loess slopes in case regions of aeolian-fluvial erosion. The grain-size curves of eroded sediments were fitted using the Weibull function. Compositions of eroded sediments under different sand cover patterns and rainfall intensities were analyzed to explore sediment transport modes of SS. The influences of sand cover amount and pattern on erosion processes of loess slopes were also discussed. The results show that sand cover on loess slopes influences the proportion of loess erosion and that the compositions of eroded sediments vary between SS and LS. Sand cover on loess slopes transforms silt erosion into sand erosion by reducing splash erosion and changing the rainfall-induced erosion processes. The percentage of eroded sand from SS in the early stage of runoff and sediment generation is always higher than that in the late stage. Sand cover on loess slopes aggravates loess erosion, not only by adding sand as additional eroded sediments but also by increasing the amount of eroded loess, compared with the loess slopes without sand cover. The influence of sand cover pattern on runoff yield and the amount of eroded sediments is larger than that of sand cover amount. Furthermore, given the same sand cover pattern, a thicker sand cover could increase sand erosion while a thinner sand cover could aggravate loess erosion. This difference explains the existence of intense erosion on slopes that are thinly covered with sand in regions where aeolian erosion and fluvial erosion interact.

submitted time 2017-12-08 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2352Downloads753 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:201712.00400 [pdf]

A field investigation of wind erosion in the farming–pastoral ecotone of northern China using a portable wind tunnel: a case study in Yanchi County

NAN, Ling; DONG, Zhibao; XIAO, Weiqiang; LI, Chao; XIAO, Nan; SONG, Shaopeng; XIAO, Fengjun; DU, Lingtong
Subjects: Geosciences >> Other Disciplines of Geosciences

The farming–pastoral ecotone in northern China is an extremely fragile ecological zone where wind erosion of cropland and rangeland is easy to occur. In this study, using a portable wind tunnel as a wind simulator, we conducted field simulated wind erosion experiments combined with laboratory analysis to investigate wind erosion of soils in trampled rangeland, non-tilled cropland and tilled cropland in Yanchi County, China. The results showed that compared with rangeland, the cropland had a higher soil water holding capacity and lower soil bulk density. The wind erosion rate of trampled rangeland was much higher than those of non-tilled cropland and tilled cropland. For cropland, the wind erosion rate of the soil after tilling was surprisingly less than that of the soil before tilling. With increasing of wind speed, the volume mean diameter of the eroded sediment collected by the trough in the wind tunnel generally increased while the clay and silt content decreased for all soils. The temporal variation in wind erosion of the trampled rangeland indicated that particle entrainment and dust emission decreased exponentially with erosion time through the successive wind erosion events due to the exhaustion of erodible particles.

submitted time 2017-12-08 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits2166Downloads718 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:201711.02563 [pdf]

Implications for Late Miocene diet from Diceros gansuensis: starch granules in tooth calculus

CHEN He; WANG Shi-Qi; TAO Da-Wei; XIA Xiu-Min; CHEN Shan-Qin; WU Yan
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geology

Reconstructing the diet of extinct species is a fundamental goal in vertebrate paleobiology. Dental calculus is the calcium phosphate deposits on teeth, which captures a large number of food particles and contains the food information of ancient animal. It is possible to explore ancient animal dietary and investigate the environmental information from dental calculus. A large number of starch granules were found in dental calculus of Dicros gansuensis excavated from the earliest Late Miocene Guonigou fauna of the Linxia Basin, Gansu Province. It is the first time that starch granules from Late Miocene were found. We classified the ancient starch granules by its morphological characteristics and also analyzed the starch granules of leaves of modern plants around the living environment of D. gansuensis to find modern starch granules and compare them with ancient ones. The results indicate that D. gansuensis may eat not only shrubs leaves, such as the plant from Caprifoliaceae, but also some tree leaves from Juglandaceae (walnut), and maybe some herbs from Ranunculaceae and Polygonaceae. It is consistent with the results of previous morphological studies, and it also provides more information. Our study extends the range of time and object for dental calculus research, and offers more possibilities for research on feeding habits of ancient mammals.

submitted time 2017-11-24 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits4352Downloads1079 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:201711.00362 [pdf]

Precipitation changes in the mid-latitudes of the Chinese mainland during 1960–2014

HU Yuling; WANG Shigong; SONG Xuping; WANG Jiaxin
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Based on daily precipitation data from 163 meteorological stations, this study investigated precipitation changes in the mid-latitudes of the Chinese mainland (MCM) during 1960–2014 using the climatic trend coefficient, least-squared regression analysis, and a non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. According to the effects of the East Asian summer monsoon on the MCM and the climatic trend coefficient of annual precipitation during 1960–2014, we divided the MCM into the western MCM and eastern MCM.

submitted time 2017-11-07 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits1165Downloads645 Comment 0

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