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1. chinaXiv:201612.00205 [pdf]

HY-2A Radar Altimeter Ultra Stable Oscillator Drift Estimation using Reconstructive Transponder with its Validation by Multi-mission Cross-Calibration

Junzhi Wan; Wei Guo; Fei Zhao; Caiyun Wang; Peng Liu
Subjects: Geosciences >> Space Physics

The paper presents a method estimating the HY-2A altimeter ultra stable oscillator (USO) drift with a reconstructive transponder. The frequency of the USO of the in-orbit altimeter changes with age, and a bias between the actual frequency and the nominal one exists. The USO bias contributes a portion of the altimeter range drift. The HY-2A altimeter transmits signals at a fixed time interval during calibration, and the actual interval between adjacent altimeter transitions, which is controlled by the USO, is different from the nominal one due to the USO drift. The reconstructive transponder measures the arrival times of the altimeter transmitted signals accurately with the atomic clock. The drift of the USO on-board the HY-2A altimeter can be estimated accurately by using the ranges from the reconstructive transponder and the HY-2A altimeter. The USO drifts of around 40 cm/year are presented. Furthermore, the multi-mission crosscalibration provides preliminary validation of HY-2A altimeter USO drift.

submitted time 2016-12-26 Hits1947Downloads655 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201612.00202 [pdf]

HY-2A Altimeter Time Tag Bias Estimation Using Reconstructive Transponder

Junzhi Wan; Wei Guo; Fei Zhao; Caiyun Wang
Subjects: Geosciences >> Space Physics

Independent clocks provide time tags for the precision orbit determination (POD) equipment and the radar altimeter onboard the HY-2A satellite, and a bias between POD data' time tag and corresponding range observation's time tag from the HY-2A altimeter exists. The time tag bias contributes a bias in the sea surface height observation due to the nonzero time rate of change of the HY-2A altimeter's height. A transponder for in-orbit radar altimeter calibration provides an approach to estimate the time tag bias. The altimeter receives the responding signals from the transponder and generates ranges. Pertinent reference ranges are obtained fromthe POD data and the transponder's coordinate. Using the ranges from the radar altimeter and the reference ranges, the time tag bias between the POD data and the altimeter observations can be estimated. During an in situ HY-2A altimeter calibration campaign using a reconstructive transponder from August 9, 2012, to July 20, 2014, 17 estimations of the altimeter's time tag bias were obtained. The preliminary results are presented in this letter.

submitted time 2016-12-26 Hits1850Downloads671 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:201612.00199 [pdf]

Echo Signal Quality Analysis During HY-2A Radar Altimeter Calibration Campaign Using Reconstructive Transponder

Junzhi Wan; Wei Guo; Fei Zhao; Caiyun Wang; Peng Liu; Mingsen Lin; Hailong Peng; Chuan Xu
Subjects: Geosciences >> Space Physics

A reconstructive transponder has been utilized for the in-orbit calibration campaign of the HY-2A radar altimeter since March 2012. The precision of final calibration result is influenced by echo signal's quality in the HY-2A altimeter's range window. As an indicator of the signal's quality, echo signal dwell time is analyzed considering its influence on signal quality and its uncertainty. In HY-2A altimeter calibration, the echo signal dwell time is determined by the radial orbit prediction uncertainty and the real-time signal processing mechanism of the reconstructive transponder. The real-time signal processing mechanism of the reconstructive transponder utilizes some incoming signal samples without sending echo signals before transmitting. Comparing with the length of the HY-2A altimeter's range window, the radial orbit prediction uncertainty is large. Large radial orbit prediction uncertainty and signal processing mechanism of the reconstructive transponder are two main factors that limit the echo signal dwell time in HY-2A altimeter calibration. Finally, approaches for increasing echo signal dwell time are briefly proposed.

submitted time 2016-12-26 Hits1939Downloads605 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201612.00198 [pdf]

An improved method to derive to equivalent current systems from global MHD simulations

Zhang JiaoJiao; Wang Chi; Tang BinBin
Subjects: Geosciences >> Space Physics

Derivation of equivalent current systems (ECS) from a global magnetospheric magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model is very useful in studying magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, ground induction effects, and space weather forecast. In this study we introduce an improved method to derive the ECS from a global MHD model, which takes account of the obliqueness of the magnetic field lines. By comparing the ECS derived from this improved method and the previous method, we find that the main characteristics of the ECS derived from the two methods are generally consistent with each other, but the eastward-westward component of the geomagnetic perturbation calculated from the ECS derived from the improved method is much stronger than that from the previous method. We then compare the geomagnetic perturbation as a function of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) clock angle calculated from the ECS derived from both methods with the observations. The comparison indicates that the improved method can improve the performance of the simulation. Furthermore, it is found that the incomplete counterbalance of the geomagnetic effect produced by the ionospheric poloidal current and field-aligned current (FAC) contributes to most of the eastward-westward component of geomagnetic perturbation.

submitted time 2016-12-26 Hits1364Downloads447 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201612.00197 [pdf]

A Matching Method for Establishing Correspondence between Satellite Radar Altimeter Data and Transponder Data Generated during Calibration

Junzhi Wan; Wei Guo; Caiyun Wang; Fei Zhao
Subjects: Geosciences >> Space Physics

This letter presents a method for matching satellite radar altimeter data and transponder data generated during in situ calibration. The transponder generates a measurement error when it measures the arrival time of the altimeter’s transmitted signal and embeds the error in both the transponder’s recorded data and the altimeter’s recorded data. The secondorder finite difference sequence of this error sequence can be extracted from the raw data, thus, the correspondence between two identical but mismatched second-order difference sequences can be uniquely established. The measurement error is utilized,and a data matching method that can uniquely establish the correspondence between the altimeter’s recorded data sequence and the transponder’s recorded data sequence is presented.This post-processing method does not increase the real-time signal processing workload of the transponder. Furthermore,The principles underlying this method can be used for any transponder that can adjust the response signal delay during calibration.

submitted time 2016-12-26 Hits1541Downloads535 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201612.00195 [pdf]


张璟珂; 李会超
Subjects: Geosciences >> Space Physics

开发高性能的磁流体力学数值模拟方法是提高空间天气数值预报研究的一个重要方 面。有限体积法的逆风分裂格式具有良好的间断捕获能力,Steger-Warming 和AUSM (Advection Upstream Splitting Method)格式是逆风分裂格式的FVS(Flux Vector Splitting) 方法中有代表性的两种格式。本文采用这两种格式求解具有伽利略不变性的扩展型广义拉格 朗日乘子磁流体力学(EGLM-MHD)方程组,对Orszag-Tang 涡流问题和三维爆炸波问题进行了数值模拟。结果表明两种格式均能得到稳定精确的数值结果。与Steger-Warming格式相比,AUSM 格式产生的磁场散度误差更小,计算速度更快。

submitted time 2016-12-26 Hits1753Downloads953 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:201612.00162 [pdf]


江芳; 王维和; 王咏梅; 王英鉴
Subjects: Geosciences >> Space Physics

FY-3气象卫星上搭载的紫外臭氧总量探测仪TOU是我国自主开发研制的首台用于全球臭氧总量定量测量的探测仪,自发射以来已成功在轨运行近两年。由于TOU发射前辐亮度定标存在偏差,为了得到高精度的产品,TOU必须进行在轨定标。本文介绍了基于辐射传输模式计算对TOU辐亮度进行在轨道定标的方法,定标过程中用于模拟辐亮度计算的臭氧总量由与TOU观测时刻相近的国外臭氧总量探测仪器MetOp/GOME-2提供。文章将在轨定标后TOU的反演结果与AURA/OMI以及地基的产品进行比较,研究结果表明,用辐射传输模式对TOU辐亮度进行在轨定标的方法是可行的,反演结果能够真实的反映臭氧的时空分布特性,在全球部分地基观测站所处的位置上对TOU, OMI以及地基的臭氧总量进行比较的结果表明,TOU与OMI的相对偏差均方根约为2.52%, TOU与地基以及OMI与地基观测结果之间的相对偏差均方根分别为4.45%和3.89%。

submitted time 2016-12-26 Hits1731Downloads800 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:201612.00118 [pdf]


Hui Li; Chi Wang; Jiansen He; Lingqian Zhang; John D. Richardson; John W. Belcher; Cui Tu
Subjects: Geosciences >> Space Physics

Nonlinear cascade of low-frequency Alfvenic fluctuations (AFs) is regarded as one candidate of the energy sources to heat plasma during the non-adiabatic expansion of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). However, AFs inside ICMEs were seldom reported in the literature. In this study, we investigate AFs inside ICMEs using observations from Voyager 2 between 1 and 6 au. It is found that AFs with high degree of Alfvenicity frequently occurred inside ICMEs, for almost all the identified ICMEs (30 out of 33 ICMEs), and 12.6% of ICME time interval. As ICMEs expand and move outward, the percentage of AF duration decays linearly in general. The occurrence rate of AFs inside ICMEs is much less than that in ambient solar wind, especially within 4 au. AFs inside ICMEs are more frequently presented in the center and at the boundaries of ICMEs. In addition, the proton temperature inside ICME has a similar distribution. These findings suggest significant contribution of AFs on local plasma heating inside ICMEs.

submitted time 2016-12-26 Hits1295Downloads370 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:201612.00113 [pdf]


Liu, Ying D.; Hu, Huidong; Wang, Chi; Luhmann, Janet G.; Richardson, John D.(); Yang, Zhongwei; Wang, Rui1()
Subjects: Geosciences >> Space Physics

As a follow-up study on Sun-to-Earth propagation of fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs), we examine the Sun-to-Earth characteristics of slow CMEs combining heliospheric imaging and in situ observations. Three events of particular interest, the 2010 June 16, 2011 March 25, and 2012 September 25 CMEs, are selected for this study. We compare slow CMEs with fast and intermediate-speed events, and obtain key results complementing the attempt of Liu et al. to create a general picture of CME Sun-to-Earth propagation: (1) the Sun-to-Earth propagation of a typical slow CME can be approximately described by two phases, a gradual acceleration out to about 20-30 solar radii, followed by a nearly invariant speed around the average solar wind level; (2) comparison between different types of CMEs indicates that faster CMEs tend to accelerate and decelerate more rapidly and have shorter cessation distances for the acceleration and deceleration; (3) both intermediate-speed and slow CMEs would have speeds comparable to the average solar wind level before reaching 1 au; (4) slow CMEs have a high potential to interact with other solar wind structures in the Sun-Earth space due to their slow motion, providing critical ingredients to enhance space weather; and (5) the slow CMEs studied here lack strong magnetic fields at the Earth but tend to preserve a flux-rope structure with an. axis generally perpendicular to the radial direction from the Sun. We also suggest a "best" strategy for the application of a triangulation concept in determining CME Sun-to-Earth kinematics, which helps to clarify confusions about CME geometry assumptions in the triangulation and to improve CME analysis and observations.

submitted time 2016-12-26 Hits1666Downloads587 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:201612.00111 [pdf]


Zhu, Bei; Liu, Ying D.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Hu, Huidong; Wang, Rui; Yang, Zhongwei
Subjects: Geosciences >> Space Physics

We study the solar energetic particle (SEP) event associated with the 2012 July 23 extreme solar storm, for which Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) and the spacecraft at L1 provide multi-point remote sensing and in situ observations. The extreme solar storm, with a superfast shock and extremely enhanced ejecta magnetic fields observed near 1 au at STEREO A, was caused by the combination of successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Meanwhile, energetic particles were observed by STEREO and near-Earth spacecraft such as the Advanced Composition Explorer and SOlar and Heliospheric Observatory, suggesting a wide longitudinal spread of the particles at 1 au. Combining the SEP observations with in situ plasma and magnetic field measurements, we investigate the longitudinal distribution of the SEP event in connection with the associated shock and CMEs. Our results underscore the complex magnetic configuration of the inner heliosphere formed by solar eruptions. Examination of particle intensities, proton anisotropy distributions, element abundance ratios, magnetic connectivity, and spectra also gives important clues for particle acceleration, transport, and distribution.

submitted time 2016-12-26 Hits1798Downloads558 Comment 0

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