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1. chinaXiv:202101.00067 [pdf]

基于最优供需分配的公共设施空间可达性分析

翟石艳; 何新新; 孔云峰; 罗静静; 宋根鑫
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

空间可达性是衡量公共服务设施公平性的重要指标,在医疗、教育、休闲等公共服务的布局规划中得到广泛应用。然而,现有可达性模型难以充分反映服务供需关系,计算指标也缺乏物理意义。本文提出新的可达性计算方法取代现有方法。该方法基于最优供需分配模型,将设施服务分配给需求者,根据分配结果计算空间可达性指标。给定服务设施与需求的空间分布,以最小化旅行成本为目标,顾及设施服务能力,采用经典的运输问题模型确定最优的服务供需分配方案,进而度量服务的空间可达性。以郑州市某区社区卫生服务为例,求解 25个中心与1333个居住小区的最优服务配置。使用最优配置结果确定每个设施的服务范围、每个居住小区使用服务的旅行时间,以及特定时间阈值的服务覆盖比率。与流行的两步移动搜索法相比,新方法的计算指标具有明确的物理意义。本文提出的可达性评价方法无需参数,计算高效,结果易于解释,在公共服务评价及设施布局规划方面具有应用潜力。

submitted time 2021-01-19 Hits35Downloads19 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202101.00045 [pdf]

Spectral parameter-based models for leaf potassium concentration estimation in Ping'ou hybrid hazelnut

ZHAO Shanchao; PAN Cunde
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Ping′ou hybrid hazelnut is produced by cross cultivation and is widely cultivated in northern China with good development prospects. Based on a field experiment of fertilizer efficiency, the leaf spectral reflectance and leaf potassium (K) concentration were measured with different quantities of K fertilizer applied at four fruit growth stages (fruit setting stage, fruit rapid growth stage, fruit fat-change stage, and fruit near-maturity stage) of Ping′ou hybrid hazelnut in 2019. Spectral parameters that were significantly correlated with leaf K concentration were selected using Pearson correlation analysis, and spectral parameter estimation models of leaf K concentration were established by employing six different modelling methods (exponential function, power function, logarithmic function, linear function, quadratic function, and cubic function). The results indicated that at the fruit setting period, leaf K concentration was significantly correlated with Dy (spectra slope of yellow edge), Rg (reflectance of the green peak position), λo (red valley position), SDb (blue edge area), SDr/SDb (where SDr represents red edge area), and (SDr–SDb)/(SDr+SDb) (P<0.01). There were significant correlations of leaf K concentration with Dy, Rg, SDb, Rg/Ro (where Ro is the reflectance of the red valley position), and (Rg–Ro)/(Rg+Ro) at the fruit rapid growth stage (P<0.01). Further, significant correlations of leaf K concentration with Rg, Ro, RNIR/Green, and RNIR/Blue were obtained at the fruit fat-change period (P<0.01). Finally, leaf K concentration showed significant correlations with Dr, Rg, Ro, SDy (yellow edge area), and SDr at the fruit near-maturity stage (P<0.01). Through a cubic function analysis, regression estimation model of leaf K concentration with highest fitting degree (R2) values at the four fruit growth stages was established. The findings in this study demonstrated that it is feasible to estimate leaf K concentration of Ping′ou hybrid hazelnut at the various phenological stages of fruit development by establishing regression models between leaf K concentration and spectral parameters.

submitted time 2021-01-15 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits32Downloads9 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202101.00046 [pdf]

Germination strategies of annual and short-lived perennial species in the Arabian Desert

Arvind BHATT; David J GALLACHER; Paulo R M SOUZA-FILHO
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Germination timing is highly regulated in short-lived plant species since it strongly influences recruitment success of vegetation. In deserts, the spatiotemporal distribution of plant-available water is highly episodic and unpredictable, making winter months more favorable for seed germination when other abiotic conditions co-occur. We hypothesized that changes in photoperiod and thermoperiod would impact germination more in seeds that had undergone in situ storage. We assessed 21 annual and short-lived perennial species in the Arabian Desert to find (1) if seeds were dormant at maturity, (2) if in situ seed storage increased germination percentage compared with no storage, (3) if photoperiod and thermoperiod germination requirements were influenced by in situ storage, and (4) if a phylogenetic association in seed germination could be observed. Seeds of each species collected in early 2017 were divided into two batches. One was tested for germination within one week (fresh seeds). The other was stored in situ at the maternal location (stored seeds) until October 2017 and tested for seed germination in the first week of November. Seed germination was conducted in incubators at two thermoperiods (15°C/20°C and 20°C/30°C; 12 h/12 h), and two photoperiods (12 and 0 h light per day). Results indicated that seed germination percentages of 13 species were significantly enhanced by in situ storage. A thermoperiod response was exhibited by stored, but not fresh seeds. Light exposure increased germination of fresh seeds but had only a minimal effect on stored seeds. Germination traits exhibited no phylogenetic correlation. This result indicated that selection pressure for germination strategy was stronger than that for taxonomic traits of these desert species.

submitted time 2021-01-15 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits39Downloads14 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202101.00048 [pdf]

Effects of different loading rates and types of biochar on passivations of Cu and Zn via swine manure composting

CHEN Yan; XU Yongping; QU Fangjing; HOU Fuqin; CHEN Hongli; LI Xiaoyu
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Pollution of arable land caused by heavy metals in livestock and poultry manure has become a potential threaten to human health in China. Safe disposal of the contained toxic pollution with animal manure by co-composting with biochar is one of the alternative methods. Biochars from different sources (wheat straw, peanut shells and rice husks) amended with different loading rates were investigated for passivations of copper and zinc (Cu and Zn) in swine manure composting. Results showed that the passivation effects of the three types of biochar on Cu and Zn were enhanced with increasing biochar dose. Contents of Cu and Zn measured by diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and Community Bureau of Reference (CBR) showed that wheat straw biochar with the loading rates of 10%–13% (w/w) was superior to the other two types of biochar in this study. Compared with the control, sample from wheat straw biochar was more favorable for the bacterial growth of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In addition, pot experiment showed that organic fertilizer amended with wheat straw biochar could significantly improve the growth of Chinese pakchoi and enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and catalase) as compared with the control. Cu and Zn contents of Chinese pakchoi in the organic fertilizer group containing wheat straw biochar reduced by 73.2% and 45.2%, 65.8% and 33.6%, respectively, compared with the group without loading biochar. There was no significant difference in the contents of vitamin C and reducing sugar between the groups of organic fertilizer amended with/without wheat straw biochar, however, there was significant difference compared with the heavy metal addition group. The application of organic fertilizer formed by adding biochar can effectively reduce the adverse effects of heavy metals on crops.

submitted time 2021-01-15 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits33Downloads8 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202101.00049 [pdf]

Improving wood volume predictions in dry tropical forest in the semi-arid Brazil

Robson B de LIMA; Patrícia A B BARRETO-GARCIA; Alessandro de PAULA; Jhuly E S PEREIRA; Flávia F de CARVALHO; Silvio H M GOMES
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

The volumetric variability of dry tropical forests in Brazil and the scarcity of studies on the subject show the need for the development of techniques that make it possible to obtain adequate and accurate wood volume estimates. In this study, we analyzed a database of thinning trees from a forest management plan in the Contendas de Sincorá National Forest, southwestern Bahia State, Brazil. The data set included a total of 300 trees with a trunk diameter ranging from 5 to 52 cm. Adjustments, validation and statistical selection of four volumetric models were performed. Due to the difference in height values for the same diameter and the low correlation between both variables, we do not suggest models which only use the diameter at breast height (DBH) variable as a predictor because they accommodate the largest estimation errors. In comparing the best single entry model (Hohenald-Krenn) with the Spurr model (best fit model), it is noted that the exclusion of height as a predictor causes the values of 136.44 and 0.93 for Akaike information criterion (AIC) and adjusted determination coefficient (R2 adj), which are poorer than the second best model (Schumacher-Hall). Regarding the minimum sample size, errors in estimation (root mean square error (RMSE) and bias) of the best model decrease as the sample size increases, especially when a larger number of trees with DBH≥15.0 cm are randomly sampled. Stratified sampling by diameter class produces smaller volume prediction errors than random sampling, especially when considering all trees. In summary, the Spurr and Schumacher-Hall models perform better. These models suggest that the total variance explained in the estimates is not less than 95%, producing reliable forecasts of the total volume with shell. Our estimates indicate that the bias around the average is not greater than 7%. Our results support the decision to use regression methods to build models and estimate their parameters, seeking stratification strategies in diameter classes for the sample trees. Volume estimates with valid confidence intervals can be obtained using the Spurr model for the studied dry forest. Stratified sampling of the data set for model adjustment and selection is necessary, since we find significant results with mean error square root values and bias of up to 70% of the total database.

submitted time 2021-01-15 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits28Downloads7 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202101.00050 [pdf]

Mapping the current and future distributions of Onosma species endemic to Iran

Farzaneh KHAJOEI NASAB; Ahmadreza MEHRABIAN; Hossein MOSTAFAVI
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Climate change may cause shifts in the natural range of species especially for those that are geographically restricted and/or endemic species. In this study, the spatial distribution of five endemic and threatened species belonging to the genus Onosma (including O. asperrima, O. bisotunensis, O. kotschyi, O. platyphylla, and O. straussii) was investigated under present and future climate change scenarios: RCP2.6 (RCP, representative concentration pathway; optimistic scenario) and RCP8.5 (pessimistic scenario) for the years 2050 and 2080 in Iran. Analysis was conducted using the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model to provide a basis for the protection and conservation of these species. Seven environmental variables including aspect, depth of soil, silt content, slope, annual precipitation, minimum temperature of the coldest month, and annual temperature range were used as main predictors in this study. The model output for the potential habitat suitability of the studied species showed acceptable performance for all species (i.e., the area under the curve (AUC)>0.800). According to the models generated by MaxEnt, the potential current patterns of the species were consistent with the observed areas of distributions. The projected climate maps under optimistic and pessimistic scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5, respectively) of 2050 and 2080 resulted in reductions and expansions as well as positive range changes for all species in comparison to their current predicted distributions. Among all species, O. bisotunensis showed the most significant and highest increase under the pessimistic scenario of 2050 and 2080. Finally, the results of this study revealed that the studied plant species have shown an acute adaptability to environmental changes. The results can provide useful information to managers to apply appropriate strategies for the management and conservation of these valuable Iranian medicinal and threatened plant species in the future.

submitted time 2021-01-15 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits17Downloads3 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202101.00051 [pdf]

Corn straw return can increase labile soil organic carbon fractions and improve water-stable aggregates in Haplic Cambisol

Batande Sinovuyo NDZELU; DOU Sen; ZHANG Xiaowei
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Corn straw return to the field is a vital agronomic practice for increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) and its labile fractions, as well as soil aggregates and organic carbon (OC) associated with water-stable aggregates (WSA). Moreover, the labile SOC fractions play an important role in OC turnover and sequestration. The aims of this study were to determine how different corn straw returning modes affect the contents of labile SOC fractions and OC associated with WSA. Corn straw was returned in the following depths: (1) on undisturbed soil surface (NTS), (2) in the 0–10 cm soil depth (MTS), (3) in the 0–20 cm soil depth (CTS), and (4) no corn straw applied (CK). After five years (2014–2018), soil was sampled in the 0–20 and 20–40 cm depths to measure the water-extractable organic C (WEOC), permanganate oxidizable C (KMnO4-C), light fraction organic C (LFOC), and WSA fractions. The results showed that compared with CK, corn straw amended soils (NTS, MTS and CTS) increased SOC content by 11.55%–16.58%, WEOC by 41.38%–51.42%, KMnO4-C and LFOC by 29.84%–34.09% and 56.68%–65.36% in the 0–40 cm soil depth. The LFOC and KMnO4-C were proved to be the most sensitive fractions to different corn straw returning modes. Compared with CK, soils amended with corn straw increased mean weight diameter by 24.24%–40.48% in the 0–20 cm soil depth. The NTS and MTS preserved more than 60.00% of OC in macro-aggregates compared with CK. No significant difference was found in corn yield across all corn straw returning modes throughout the study period, indicating that adoption of NTS and MTS would increase SOC content and improve soil structure, and would not decline crop production.

submitted time 2021-01-15 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits27Downloads6 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202101.00053 [pdf]

Assessment of drought hazard, vulnerability and risk in Iran using GIS techniques

Esmail HEYDARI ALAMDARLOO; Hassan KHOSRAVI; Sahar NASABPOUR; Ahmad GHOLAMI
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

The drought has enormous adverse effects on agriculture, water resources and environment, and causes damages around the world. Drought risk assessment and prioritization of drought management can help decision makers and planners to manage the adverse effects of drought. This paper aims to determine the risk of drought in Iran. At the first stage, standardized precipitation index (SPI) was calculated for the period 1981–2016. Then the probability map of different drought classes or drought hazard probability map were prepared. After that the indicator-based vulnerability assessment method was used to determine the drought vulnerability index. Five indices including climate, topography, waterway density, land use and groundwater resources were chosen as the most critical factors of drought in Iran and followed by the analytical hierarchy process questionnaire, the weights of each index were obtained based on expert opinions. Fuzzy membership maps of each index and sub-index were prepared using ArcGIS software. The drought vulnerability map of Iran was plotted using these weights and maps of each indicator. Finally, the drought risk map of Iran was provided by multiplying drought hazard and vulnerability maps. According to the 43-completed questionnaires by experts, climate index has the highest vulnerability to drought. Climate does not have an important role in drought hazard index, but it is the most crucial factor to classified drought vulnerability index. The results showed that central, northeast, southeast and west parts of Iran are at high risks of drought. There are regions with different risks in Iran due to unusual weather and climatic conditions. We realized that the climate and the groundwater situation is almost the same in the central, east and south parts of Iran, because the land use plays a crucial role in the drought vulnerability and risk in these areas. The drought risk decreases from the center of Iran to the southwest and northwest.

submitted time 2021-01-15 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits20Downloads2 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202101.00054 [pdf]

Influence of non-stationarity and auto-correlation of climatic records on spatio-temporal trend and seasonality analysis in a region with prevailing arid and semi-arid climate, Iran

Mahsa MIRDASHTVAN; Mohsen MOHSENI SARAVI
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Trend and stationarity analysis of climatic variables are essential for understanding climate variability and provide useful information about the vulnerability and future changes, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. In this study, various climatic zones of Iran were investigated to assess the relationship between the trend and the stationarity of the climatic variables. The Mann-Kendall test was considered to identify the trend, while the trend free pre-whitening approach was applied for eliminating serial correlation from the time-series. Meanwhile, time series stationarity was tested by Dickey-Fuller and Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin tests. The results indicated an increasing trend for mean air temperature series at most of the stations over various climatic zones, however, after eliminating the serial correlation factor, this increasing trend changes to an insignificant decreasing trend at a 95% confidence level. The seasonal mean air temperature trend suggested a significant increase in the majority of the stations. The mean air temperature increased more in northwest towards central parts of Iran that mostly located in arid and semi-arid climatic zones. Precipitation trend reveals an insignificant downward trend in most of the series over various climatic zones; furthermore, most of the stations follow a decreasing trend for seasonal precipitation. Furthermore, spatial patterns of trend and seasonality of precipitation and mean air temperature showed that the northwest parts of Iran and margin areas of the Caspian Sea are more vulnerable to the changing climate with respect to the precipitation shortfalls and warming. Stationarity analysis indicated that the stationarity of climatic series influences on their trend; so that, the series which have significant trends are not static. The findings of this investigation can help planners and policy-makers in various fields related to climatic issues, implementing better management and planning strategies to adapt to climate change and variability over Iran.

submitted time 2021-01-15 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits23Downloads5 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202101.00055 [pdf]

Spatial regression approach to estimate synthetic unit hydrograph by geomorphic characteristics of watersheds in arid regions

Luminda N GUNAWARDHANA; Ghazi A AL-RAWAS; Mahad S BAAWAIN
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geography

Rainfall-runoff relationship in arid regions is unique and challenging to study. Studies for bridging the hydro-meteorological knowledge gap for planning, designing and managing water resources is therefore vitally important. The objective of this study is to develop a method for estimating unit hydrograph at reasonably finer time resolutions (10-min and 1-h) which can be easily adaptable by practitioners at sub-catchment levels, especially when the focus area is ungauged. Observed wadi-flow at 5-min interval and tipping bucket rainfall measurements at 1-min interval were obtained to cover 10 major watersheds in Oman. The deconvolution method was applied to derive the unit hydrographs (UHs) from wadi-flow and excess rainfall. Key catchment characteristics such as the watershed area, length of the main wadi and the length to the centroid of the catchment area were derived from digital elevation model (DEM) data. The whole study area was then divided into 515 sub-catchments with various shapes and sizes. A strong relationship was found between the wadi length and the length to the centroid of the catchment area (R2>0.89). This relationship was then adopted to simplify the classical Snyder method to determine UHs. Moreover, several parameters of the Snyder method were calibrated to the arid environment by matching the peak-flow, lag-time and three time-widths (75%, 50% and 30% of the peak-flow) of 10-min and 1-h UHs with physical characteristics of the watersheds. All developed relationships were validated with independent rainfall and wadi-flow events. Results indicate that the calibrated parameters in these arid watersheds are quite distinct from those suggested for other regions of the world. A marked difference was found between the 10-min UHs estimated by the S-hydrograph method and the deconvolution method. Therefore, it is concluded that a method depends on natural hydro-meteorological conditions would be more practical in arid region. The proposed methodology can be used for water resources management in arid regions having similar climate and geographical settings.

submitted time 2021-01-15 From cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits25Downloads11 Comment 0

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