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  • 快速沉积与侵蚀对地温场及天然气水合物成藏演化的影响:以南海北部陆坡为例 Impacts of fast sedimentation and erosion on the evolution of geothermal field and gas hydrate system: cases of Northern South China Sea

    分类: 地球科学 >> 空间物理学 分类: 地球科学 >> 海洋科学 提交时间: 2017-03-23

    摘要:海洋沉积物中天然气水合物的存在与分布与地温条件紧密相关。南海北部陆坡大部分区域更、全新世沉积速率较高,同时局部地区(如神狐天然气水合物钻探区)发育有大量的海底冲蚀谷。这些快速沉积或侵蚀作用可以对地温场及天然气水合物的形成与赋存产生重要影响,然而目前注意到这些问题的研究相对较少。本文中我们结合南海北部陆坡的实际情况,建立了针对地温场发生动态变化时的水合物成藏数值模型。我们给出两个成藏模拟案例,其一是快速沉积的情形,其二是地形遭受侵蚀、产生冲蚀谷时的情形。结果表明,在这两种情形下地温场将发生不同的瞬态调整,并对天然气水合物在地层中聚集及分布产状产生重要影响。在快速沉积发生时,地温梯度将变小,天然气水合物稳定带(HSZ)将增厚;然而当其底界将随着热传递而上升,天然气水合物将不断在原稳定带底界分解,而后在新的稳定带底界处重新生成水合物。这样长时间的快速沉积作用可以造成水合物主要富集在稳定带底界处。而当快速侵蚀作用发生时,地温梯度将变大,天然气水合物稳定带的厚度将变薄,原来位于冲蚀谷处的水合物藏将被侵蚀作用破坏。而后,随着热平衡的发展,逐渐形成新的、类似于似海底反射层的稳定带底界。单纯考虑甲烷扩散作用下,高丰度水合物的形成需要较长的时间,相对而言脊下的水合物成藏较好,形成矿点的概率较大。 The occurrence and distribution of gas hydrate in marine sediments is closely related to the state of geothermal field. The sedimentation rate is relatively high during the Pleistocene and Holocene in the northern margin of the South China Sea. Moreover, there are many erosional canyons at the sea bottom in some local areas. Such fast sedimentation and erosion can greatly affect the geothermal regime and the formation and occurrence of gas hydrate deposits. However, there are few studies that consider such scenarios. In this study, considering the geological reality, we build a numerical reservoir model aimed to simulate the evaluation of the gas hydrate system upon two cases: the fast sedimentation and the development of erosional canyons. The results indicate the geothermal filed and the accumulation and distribution of gas hydrate can be adjusted dynamically when the fast sedimentation or erosion occurs. Under fast sedimentation, the geothermal gradient becomes smaller and the thickness of gas hydrate stability zone (HSZ) becomes larger. However, due to the role of heat transfer, the bottom of HSZ rises upward. This process leads to the hydrate near the previous bottom of HSZ being dissociated and depositing near the bottom of new HSZ. After a long duration, the fast sedimentation will result the formation of hydrate being mainly enriched near the bottom of HSZ. By contrast, when fast erosion occurs, the geothermal gradient increases and the HSZ turn thinner. The gas hydrate deposit system can be partially destroyed by the formation of canyons. A long time is necessary for the recovery of a gas hydrate deposit with significant abundance. Relatively, the deposits under the residual ridges are more possible to be potential “sweet spots”.

  • 基于SPEI指数的新疆天山草地近55 a干旱特征

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地球科学其他学科 提交时间: 2019-09-10 合作期刊: 《干旱区研究》

    摘要:标准化降水蒸散指数(SPEI)通过标准化潜在蒸散与降水的差值,表征一个地区干湿状况偏离常年的程度,是分析干旱演变趋势的新的理想指标,目前已经广泛应用于干旱评估、水资源管理等领域。利用SPEI和1961—2015年新疆天山山区8个代表站点的月降水量及月平均气温资料,对天山山区55 a以来气温和降水的变化特征、不同时间尺度的干旱变化特征、草地生长季干旱特征及变化趋势进行了分析,结果表明:近55 a,天山山区气温呈现显著的上升趋势;降水量总体呈略微上升的趋势,但年际变化较大,变化趋势不显著;天山山区月、季、半年尺度以及年尺度的干旱事件分别为42个、25个、16个和7个;天山山区草地生长季发生轻度、中度和重度干旱的频率分别为37.5%、7.1%和1.8%;近55 a,天山山区草地生长季降水量有所增加,但由于气温升高带来的蒸散作用加强,气候仍呈变干的趋势。近55 a来,天山山区草地生长季气候存在变干的倾向,且年际间的干旱程度变化剧烈,对草地的年际间生长状况差异存在较大的影响。

  • 秦巴山特困区农户生计资本及生计策略研究——以商洛市为例

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地理学 提交时间: 2020-01-06 合作期刊: 《干旱区地理》

    摘要:基于秦巴山商洛地区农户问卷调查数据,在可持续生计框架下,聚焦不同群体之间生计资本状况,并探讨其农户生计资本对生计策略选择的影响以及生计资本的耦合性。结果表明:(1) 山区农户生计策略出现明显分化,依据非农收入比重分为纯务工型、务工主导型、兼业型和纯农型4种类型。(2) 调研样本中农户生计资本有限和不均衡,呈现金融资本和社会资本相对较高,自然资本、人力资本偏低的特征。非贫困户中兼业型生计资本总值最高,务工主导型、纯务工型次之,纯农型最低;贫困户中务工主导型生计资本总值最高,纯务工型、兼业型次之,纯农型最低。(3) 非贫困户中人均耕地面积、人均林地面积、耕地质量、职业技能水平、政治资源、就业网络对纯务工型农户向务工主导型、兼业型转变有着积极影响,家庭人均收入、男性劳动力比例则具有负向影响;家庭人均收入和职业技能水平对于纯务工型向纯农型转变有负向影响。贫困户中人均耕地面积、人均林地面积、政治资源对纯务工型农户向务工主导型、兼业型和纯农型转变具有正向影响,家庭人均收入、劳动力教育水平、职业技能水平、联系成本则具有负向影响。(4) 非贫困农户生计资本耦合度依次为兼业型>务工主导型>纯务工型>纯农型;贫困农户则为兼业型>纯务工型>务工主导型>纯农型。因此,开展农户可持续性生计研究,对于农户减贫、促进乡村地区发展具有重要意义。

  • 模拟海洋大气条件下直流电场作用对碳钢初期腐蚀行为的影响

    分类: 地球科学 >> 海洋科学 分类: 材料科学 >> 材料科学(综合) 提交时间: 2017-03-31 合作期刊: 《腐蚀科学与防护技术》

    摘要:采用失重分析、极化曲线测试和SEM分析手段,研究了模拟海洋大气环境下直流电场对碳钢初期腐蚀行为的影响。结果表明,直流电场的存在加速了碳钢的初期腐蚀速率,但并没有改变其腐蚀动力学;直流电场存在有利于具有亚稳片状结构的γ-FeOOH的形成,同时抑制了γ-FeOOH向具有保护性能的α-FeOOH的转化,从而导致锈层的保护性能下降,加速了碳钢的腐蚀。

  • An experimental study on the influences of water erosion on wind erosion in arid and semi-arid regions

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地理学 提交时间: 2019-03-28 合作期刊: 《干旱区科学》

    摘要: Complex erosion by wind and water causes serious harm in arid and semi-arid regions. The interaction mechanisms between water erosion and wind erosion is the key to further our understanding of the complex erosion. Therefore, in-depth understandings of the influences of water erosion on wind erosion is needed. This research used a wind tunnel and two rainfall simulators to investigate the influences of water erosion on succeeding wind erosion. The wind erosion measurements before and after water erosion were run on semi-fixed aeolian sandy soil configured with three slopes (5°, 10° and 15°), six wind speeds (0, 9, 11, 13, 15 and 20 m/s), and five rainfall intensities (0, 30, 45, 60 and 75 mm/h). Results showed that water erosion generally restrained the succeeding wind erosion. At a same slope, the restraining effects decreased as rainfall intensity increased, which decreased from 70.63% to 50.20% with rainfall intensity increased from 30 to 75 mm/h. Rills shaped by water erosion could weaken the restraining effects at wind speed exceeding 15 m/s mainly by cutting through the fine grain layer, exposing the sand layer prone to wind erosion to airflow. In addition, the restraining effects varied greatly among different soil types. The restraining effects of rainfall on the succeeding wind erosion depend on the formation of a coarsening layer with a crust and a compact fine grain layer after rainfall. The findings can deepen the understanding of the complex erosion and provide scientific basis for regional soil and water conservation in arid and semi-arid regions.

  • 水圈微生物重大研究计划:聚焦水圈微生物组研究的核心科学问题

    分类: 地球科学 >> 海洋科学 提交时间: 2017-03-22 合作期刊: 《中国科学院院刊》

    摘要:水圈包括海洋、湖沼、河流、冰川、地下水等,水圈中居住着地球上一半以上的微生物,包括细菌、古菌、真菌、藻类、病毒等,蕴含着地球上最大的微生物组。已有的研究表明,水圈微生物在重要元素生物地球化学循环中发挥关键驱动作用。但是,人们对水圈微生物组的核心科学问题,即微生物如何发挥驱动作用至今了解不多。最近,国家自然科学基金委员会“水圈微生物驱动地球元素循环的机制”重大研究计划(简称“水圈微生物计划”)正式立项。该计划拟选择典型水圈环境,解析微生物群落构建及与环境之间的相互作用、微生物物质与能量代谢机制以及微生物代谢活动的生态学意义与贡献,从而揭示水圈微生物驱动碳、氮、硫等元素生物地球化学循环的机制。文章简述了该计划提出的背景与依据,以及涉及的主要科学问题和研究设想。

  • International UTC TAI comparison based on BDS PPP

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地球科学其他学科 提交时间: 2018-01-07

    摘要:The BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) developed by China, and provided official service for Asia-pacific region freely since 2012. With development of BDS, BDS-based time transfer has become an important research direction in BDS’s application fields. At present, the main method of BDS-based time transfer is BDS Common View (BDS CV), which can reach nanoseconds magnitude. Hence, we investigate the performance time transfer based on BDS precise point positioning (PPP) toward UTC/TAI compute. In this contribution, we focus on UTC/TAI comparison based on BDS PPP by using developed quad-constellation GNSS software, which called National Time System Center’s (NTSC) Bernese. And a long-term data analysis is presented. The experiments include two parts: (1) The reliability of the software and multi-GNSS products; (2) The performance of the BDS PPP toward International UTC/TAI comparison. The experimental results reveal that the accuracy of NTSC’s Bernese GPS PPP can reach about 0.1 ns relative to BIPM TAI PPP solutions. Compared with BIPM TAI PPP solutions, the accuracy of GPS PPP solutions can achieve about 0.2 ns by using multi-GNSS precise products, such as GBM, COM. For BDS PPP solutions, the solutions of GPS PPP are regarded as reference values. It is demonstrated that the accuracy of time transfer based on BDS PPP can reach better 1 ns toward UTC/TAI comparison for the statistics of 30 days-arc solutions, while 0.1 ns magnitude can be achieved for the statistics of daily solutions due to the influence of the day boundary discontinuity. Moreover, four different processing strategies of BDS PPP which include tropospheric delay fixed, tropospheric delay and coordinates fixed, coordinates fixed, and BDS-only are tested. Results show that the comparable accuracy can be achieved for four processing strategies. Hence, one can conclude that the time transfer based on BDS-only PPP show a good performance toward UTC/TAI computation.

  • 聚酯表面类金刚石薄膜的制备及疏水性能

    分类: 地球科学 >> 海洋科学 提交时间: 2017-04-10 合作期刊: 《材料研究学报》

    摘要:采用线性离子束技术在 PET 基材表面制备类金刚石薄膜,分析薄膜结构、性能随离子束电流的演变规律 并研究了薄膜润湿特性与表面形貌、结构、表面能的作用关系。结果表明:沉积在 PET 表面的类金刚石薄膜具 有典型的非晶碳膜结构特征,随着离子束电流的增大 sp2/sp3 比值由 0.774 增加到 1.622,薄膜表面的石墨化程度 提高;改性后的 PET 材料接触角从 63.51°增大到 103.7°。进一步分析发现,疏水性能的提高归因于材料表面能 的降低,表面石墨化程度的提高和微-纳结构的形成是表面能降低的根本原因。此外,疏水的 PET 材料在 500~ 760 nm可见光范围内具有一定的増透效果,透过率达到88.5%以上。用线性离子束沉积碳膜及刻蚀技术能得 到合适的微观形貌和表面化学结构,可在保持基体材料透明性的同时提高 PET 柔性聚合物材料的疏水性能。

  • Introduction to terminologies of tooth enamel microstructures and a proposal for their standard Chinese translations

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学 提交时间: 2017-09-28 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要:Tooth enamel is composed of elongated, hexagonal crystallites of hydroxyapatite. Some crystallites are arranged into various regual structures and futher formed a composite structure in a hierarchical manner. The hierarchical system can provide a basis for analysis different levels of structural complexity from varitaiton of particular crystallite strucutes to variation of structural types throughout a individual’s dentition. The size, orientation, distribution and the packing patterns of crystallites are gene-comtrolled and have limited range of intraspecific variability. Thus, these microstructures provide considerable and reliable morphological characters that help understanding of external dental morphology in context of both phylogeny and function in vertebrates. Because teeth are highly resistant to weathering, mainly owing to their enamel covering, so that they were commonly preserved as fossils. This organic system, particularly their microstructures, has attracted more and more attention from vertebrate paleontologists and other morphologists. However, as already recognized by many previous studies, some terminologies of the enamel microstructures have been complex and used inconsistently. Although considerable effort has been made to study enamel microstructures in China during the last few decades, a standard terminology of enamel microstructures in Chinese has not be formally brought into line with that in English literatures. Here we intend to introduce and systematize the relevant terminology used in the study of enamel microstructures and translate them into Chinese, in hoping that this systematic effort will enhance researches of enamel microstructures in China. 脊椎动物牙齿釉质显微结构具丰富的形态学特征,承载着系统发育和生物力学等方面的信息。本文在前人的研究基础上,试图系统地介绍牙釉质显微结构的基本内容,提出牙釉质研究中相关术语的中文译名建议,并对一些重要术语做了简要解释,供相关研究者参考,以期促进牙釉质显微结构研究的进一步发展。

  • 国外山岳型遗产地保护发展经验及其对北京市的启示

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地理学 提交时间: 2018-01-11 合作期刊: 《智库理论与实践》

    摘要:[目的/意义] 中国是世界遗产最多的国家之一,传承保护好这些珍贵的历史文化遗产是中国人民,也是世界人民的共同责任,但是如何处理好文化遗产保护利用与城乡改造开发的关系却是一个重大的现实问题。[方法/过程] 采用实地调研、案例分析、对比研究等方法,分析了美国黑石河峡谷遗产廊道、日本纪伊山脉胜地的基本概况,总结了上述两个案例的成功经验,提出了对北京西山文化带的建设启示。[结果/结论] 研究表明,国际上山岳型遗产地保护发展有不少成功经验,可以概括为重视文化遗产保护,自然景观与人文景观相协调;因势利导发展旅游业,促进文化遗产保护与利用相结合;完善规划管理体系,政府管理与民众意愿相统一;成立专门机构,促进国家、地方、民众相联合。这启示北京应进一步凝练西山文化带的文化特色和内涵、切实保护和利用好自然和文化资源、成立专门机构进行统一管理、加强规划引导和功能定位。

  • New material of the Late Miocene Moschus (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from Huade, Nei Mongol, North China

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学 提交时间: 2018-03-02 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要:Moschus grandaevus was firstly uncovered from the Late Miocene deposits at Ertemte, Olan Chorea, Harr Obo and Hua Ba in or around Huade County in the middle part of Nei Mongol and was described by Schlosser in 1924. The excavations by Sino-Soviet Joint Paleontological Team in 1959 and recent excavations since 2013 at Tuchengzi (Tuchetse), another locality at Huade, accumulated many specimens of the musk deer. The morphology and metric studies show that the musk deer specimens from Tuchengzi are the same as those described by Schlosser and can be included into the same species. M. grandaevus ranges from Siberia of Russia to North China, and likely to southern China, in the Late Miocene and Pliocene. The appearance of such folivorous musk deer in the Late Miocene deposits at Tuchengzi indicates that there were forests there during that period. The cladistic analyses show that the fossil species of Moschus are closely related to each other and can be grouped together as Moschini or Moschinae. Micromeryx is closer to Moschus and Cervidae, but the relationship between Micromeryx and Moschus is more complicated than previously considered; nonetheless Hispanomeryx is closer to Bovidae. Schlosser (1924)记述了最初发现于内蒙古化德境内或附近的二登图、敖兰卓蕾、哈尔敖包及华坝的古麝(Moschus grandaevus)。1959年中苏古生物考察队在化德的另一个地点土城子采集到不少古麝化石。2013年以来作者在土城子进行的野外发掘积累了更多的古麝化石标本。土城子标本在形态和测量数据方面和二登图等地点的古麝非常接近,可以归入同一种。根据现有资料归纳,古麝的地理分布范围自俄罗斯的西伯利亚到华北,很可能延伸到华南;其地质时代分布范围为晚中新世–上新世。食叶型古麝在土城子晚中新世地层中的出现说明当时土城子一带有森林环境。支序分析显示麝属(Moschus)化石种相互之间的系统关系非常近,可以归并为麝族(Moschini)或麝亚科(Moschinae); Micromeryx更接近麝属和鹿科,它与麝属之间的关系比以前认为的复杂,而Hispanomeryx更接近牛科。

  • 锁相频率合成器最优环路带宽的选取

    分类: 地球科学 >> 空间物理学 提交时间: 2017-03-10

    摘要:锁相环频率合成器环路带宽值的选取直接影响其输出相位噪声。基于此,本文首先介绍了锁相环的基本组成部分,然后分析了晶振、集成锁相芯片和压控振荡器相位噪声对频率合成器环路输出端的噪声影响,从而导出了最优环路带宽计算公式。并且通过基于PE3236芯片的频率合成器的输出相位噪声测量对最优环路带宽公式正确性进行了验证。结果表明:当根据最优环路带宽公式取值时,锁相环频率合成器的输出相位噪声满足实际应用需求。

  • 基于栅格的关中平原城市群人居环境质量综合评价

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地球科学其他学科 提交时间: 2019-09-11 合作期刊: 《干旱区地理》

    摘要:基于自然与人文多重栅格数据,构建人居环境质量综合指数评价模型,分析2015年关中平原城市群人居环境的空间分异格局,并对人口分布与人居环境质量的协同性进行探讨。结果表明:(1)人居自然环境呈现出自东向西,由山地、高原向平原、谷地依次递减的空间分布格局,受地形影响最为明显,地形起伏度与人居自然环境呈负相关关系。(2)人居人文环境表现出平原低、山区高,城镇高于乡村的空间分布格局,受城市行政层级影响显著。(3)关中平原城市群人居环境综合质量指数介于0.216~0.716之间,呈现出以关中平原、汾河谷地向外梯级递减的带状空间分布格局。(4)关中平原城市群人口密度与人居环境质量空间分布显著一致,总体呈现出平原高于山地,城市高于乡村的空间分布规律,人居环境质量越高,人口密度越大,土地利用也越充分。

  • 30a青海省公路可达性及县域经济联系格局演化

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地理学 提交时间: 2018-11-14 合作期刊: 《干旱区地理》

    摘要: 采用加权平均旅行时间、引力模型与克里金插值、XY to line、自然间断点分级法、分级符号等GIS分析方法,以1986年、1995年、2004年、2016年为时间断面,分析了青海省公路网络中43个主要节点城镇的可达性及县域经济联系格局的演化规律,结论为:1986—2016年,青海省公路网络等可达性线呈现不规则的半环状分布,影响因素主要有位置、交通、经济及其时间距离等,可达性插值表现为交通主干道指向性;青海省公路网络可达性水平均有提升,可达性值的变化呈现相似性与差异性并存的特点;1986—2016年,青海省经济联系强度与对外经济联系总量均呈现增长态势,尤其经济联系总量增长愈来愈快;前五等级的经济联系强度与前三经济联系总量的县域基本集中于西宁、海东地区,体现出青海省典型的“单核”城市空间结构,省会城市辐射带动作用明显;经济联系强度、经济联系总量与可达性均呈现正相关。

  • Tree ring based drought variability in Northwest Tajikistan since 1895 AD

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地球科学史 提交时间: 2020-10-20 合作期刊: 《干旱区科学》

    摘要:Determining the mechanisms controlling the changes of wet and dry conditions will improve our understanding of climate change over the past hundred years, which is of great significance to the study of climate and environmental changes in the arid regions of Central Asia. Forest trees are ecologically significant in the local environment, and therefore the tree ring analysis can provide a clear record of regional historical climate. This study analyzed the correlation between the tree ring width chronology of Juniperus turkestanica Komarov and the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) in Northwest Tajikistan, based on 56 tree ring samples collected from Shahristan in the Pamir region. Climate data including precipitation, temperature and the SPEI were downloaded from the Climate Research Unit (CRU) TS 4.00. The COFECHA program was used for cross-dating, and the ARSTAN program was used to remove the growth trend of the tree itself and the influence of non-climatic factors on the growth of the trees. A significant correlation was found between the radial growth of J. turkestanica trees and the monthly mean SPEI of February–April. The monthly mean SPEI sequence of February–April during the period of 1895–2016 was reconstructed, and the reconstruction equation explained 42.5% of the variance. During the past 122 a (1895–2016), the study area has experienced three wetter periods (precipitation above average): 1901–1919, 1945–1983 and 1995–2010, and four drier periods (precipitation below average): 1895–1900, 1920–1944, 1984–1994 and 2011–2016. The spatial correlation analysis revealed that the monthly mean SPEI reconstruction sequence of February–April could be used to characterize the large-scale dry-wet variations in Northwest Tajikistan during the period of 1895–2016. This study could provide comparative data for validating the projections of climate models and scientific basis for managing water resources in Tajikistan in the context of climate change.

  • 全极化GNSS-R陆面参数延迟多普勒图模型

    分类: 地球科学 >> 大地测量学 提交时间: 2019-04-10

    摘要: 目前,针对GNSS-R的研究多从观测角度出发,对其散射机理研究相对较少。本文针对GNSS-R(GNSS-Reflectometry)反射信号陆面参数的延迟多普勒图理论模型展开研究,对于陆面参数(裸土、植被)的双站散射特性的计算采用修改后的随机粗糙面散射模型和零阶/一阶辐射传输方程模型。通过该模型模拟分析了裸土、植被参数变化时,相应的延迟多普勒图的变化。同时为利用极化信息进行相应地物参数的后向反演,模型中增加全极化计算功能。全极化GNSS+R陆面参数延迟多普勒图理论模型的研究有助于星载数据的解释、地表实验设计、数据仿真和后向反演算法的开发。

  • Impact of Urban Rail Transit on Business Districts Based on Time Distance: Urumqi Light Rail

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地理学 分类: 交通运输工程 >> 道路工程 提交时间: 2019-03-31

    摘要: 基于超制图学的思想,建立模型将乘坐轻轨的时间距离换算成以米(m)为单位的空间距离。在此基础上,通过地理信息系统(GIS)的地图投影空间变换方法,用换算出的距离重新定义两地间距离,变形原地图形成时间距离地图。将时间距离空间化,利用技术手段,对时间距离进行可视化表达。结果发现,轻轨对于城市形态的影响受到站点离所选取的中心点距离的影响,呈现离中心点越远变形越大;离中心点越近变形越小。轻轨对商业中心布局的影响基本呈现圈层分布。时间距离压缩了传统城市形态。随着乌鲁木齐地铁建设进程的推进和基础设施的完善,城市内部进一步压缩时间距离仍有很大余地,已有商业中心应进行升级。本研究为乌鲁木齐城市建设提供一种新的参考与思路。

  • 2016——2030年中国空间科学发展规划建议

    分类: 地球科学 >> 空间物理学 提交时间: 2016-05-13

    摘要:半个世纪以来,空间科学不仅极大拓展了人类的认知领域,改变了人类对自然与自身的认识,而且牵引和带动了航天和相关高技术的快速发展,为国家安全、科技进步提供了支撑和保障,同时通过大批创造性的发明和技术应用,为国家经济社会发展、人类生活质量改善提供了源源不断的创新活力。在分析国内空间科学发展现状的基础上,文章阐述了我国20162030年空间科学拟研究的前沿科学问题,提出了我国至2030年空间科学发展战略目标、空间科学计划及所包含的科学卫星任务,并探讨了支撑和保障空间科学发展所需的技术手段与能力。希望通过系列空间科学计划与任务的实施,为我国经济社会发展和人类文明进步做出应有的贡献。

  • Deep space communication channel characteristics under solar scintillation

    分类: 地球科学 >> 空间物理学 提交时间: 2017-03-10

    摘要:Electromagnetic waves used for deep space communications are mainly affected by the charged particles ejected by the sun. These effects may result in degradation of communication quality or communication interruption. This paper discusses the effects of solar scintillation on electro-magnetic waves, including the scintillation index which is a measure of the intensity scintillation, the coherence bandwidth and the coherence time of deep space communication channel. The deep space communication channel under solar scintillation is modeled by using Rician fading channel according to the scintillation index. The coherence bandwidth will determine whether the channel is flat fading or frequency selective fading and the coherence time will determine whether the channel is slow fading or fast fading. The approach of choosing signal band width is determined by the coherence bandwidth and the coherence time with the change of the solar elongation angle. The simulation results show the bit error rate of the signal bandwidth chosen by the proposed approach is lower than a random choice.

  • 风云三号C星全球导航卫星掩星探测仪首次实现北斗掩星探测

    分类: 地球科学 >> 空间物理学 提交时间: 2016-05-03

    摘要:全球导航卫星掩星探测仪(GNOS)是国际首台北斗系统(BDS)和全球定位系统(GPS)双系统兼容掩星探测仪, 2013年9月23日随风云三号卫星C星(FY3 C)发射入轨, 目前已测得大量掩星数据. 介绍了FY3 C-GNOS的组成; 统计了2013年10月12日全天的FY3 C-GNOS掩星事件及其全球分布情况; 通过与GPS精密定轨结果进行对比分析, 测试了BDS在轨实时定位精度, 检验了BDS掩星产品的可靠性和一致性. 初步分析结果表明: 14颗BDS卫星在轨运营的条件下, BDS和GPS兼容掩星探测仪可将掩星事件数提高约33.3%; BDS实时定位平均偏差优于6 m, 标准偏差优于7 m; 5-25 km高度范围内, BDS与GPS内符合精度大气折射率优于2%, 温度优于2 K, 湿度优于1.5 g/kg, 压强优于2%, 电离层峰值密度优于15.6%. GNOS的在轨正常运行及BDS与GPS掩星定位精度及反演产品的一致性为北斗掩星探测的业务化运行奠定了基础.