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  • Postcranial morphology of Middle Eocene deperetellid Teleolophus (Perissodactyla, Tapiroidea) from Shara Murun region of the Erlian Basin, Nei Mongol, China

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学 提交时间: 2018-01-25 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要: Deperetellidae are a group of common, endemic Asian Middle Eocene tapiroids. Although five genera within the family have been named, most of them were represented by fragmentary maxillae and mandibles except for some skeletal material of Deperetella. Based exclusively on dental characters, different authors have proposed affinities of deperetellids with, for instance, helaletid Colodon, lophialetids, or rhodopagids. Here we described the partial postcranial skeleton of Teleolophus medius? recently discovered at Wulanhuxiu (=Ulan Shireh) of the Erlian Basin, China, and compared the postcranial skeletons of Teleolophus with those of Lophialetes, Deperetella, Heptodon, Helaletes, and Colodon. The postcranial skeleton of Teleolophus shares many similarities with that of Deperetella especially in having elongated and slender limbs, a relatively long, narrow lunar with a slightly concave medial border of the radial facet, a magnum with an anteriorly situated hump and a deeply excavated Mc IV facet, Mc II not elevated above Mc III, a slightly asymmetric trochlea of the femur, a fibula highly reduced or even fused with a tibia, Mt III contacting the cuboid, Mt II in contact with ectocuneiform only on the posterior end, and the manus and pes with functional tridactyls. These similarities support the close relationship between Teleolophus and Deperetella. We interpreted some similarities of postcrania between Teleolophus and Lophialetes as a result of parallel evolution, due to their cursorial adaptations. Colodon is more similar to Heptodon than to Teleolophus in the postcranial features, suggesting a close relationship between Colodon and Heptodon. Whether or not Helaletidae and Deperetellidae are closely related await further investigation. Both morphological characters and ternary diagram indicate that Teleolophus adapted to fast running, as its contemporary Lophialetes.

  • Development and applications of paleontological computed tomography

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学 提交时间: 2017-10-09 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要:The traditional serial grinding method used to investigate the internal structure of fossils cannot be readily applied to valuable fossil specimens due to its destructive and time-consuming nature. Computed tomography (CT) is an ideal non-destructive technique for investigating the internal structure of fossils, in which thousands of serial images are obtained and used to produce an accurate reconstruction of the internal morphology. This paper reviews the design, development and applications of the first CT system in China dedicated exclusively to scanning fossils. The 225 kV three-dimensional (3D) fossil micro-CT (225-3D-μCT) is capable of high-resolution volumetric imaging, with a resolution up to 5 μm, and can accommodate specimens measuring up to 100 mm in diameter and 100 mm in length. The 450 kV ordinary fossil CT (450-TY-ICT) can produce high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) images of specimens ranging up to 800 mm in diameter and 1000 mm in length, with a resolution up to 200 μm. Two paleontological CT facilities represent a high-performance platform offering the functional diversity needed to meet the demands of studying fossils at a variety of different scales. The two machines have become indispensable for paleontological research in China.

  • Introduction to terminologies of tooth enamel microstructures and a proposal for their standard Chinese translations

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学 提交时间: 2017-09-28 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要:Tooth enamel is composed of elongated, hexagonal crystallites of hydroxyapatite. Some crystallites are arranged into various regual structures and futher formed a composite structure in a hierarchical manner. The hierarchical system can provide a basis for analysis different levels of structural complexity from varitaiton of particular crystallite strucutes to variation of structural types throughout a individual’s dentition. The size, orientation, distribution and the packing patterns of crystallites are gene-comtrolled and have limited range of intraspecific variability. Thus, these microstructures provide considerable and reliable morphological characters that help understanding of external dental morphology in context of both phylogeny and function in vertebrates. Because teeth are highly resistant to weathering, mainly owing to their enamel covering, so that they were commonly preserved as fossils. This organic system, particularly their microstructures, has attracted more and more attention from vertebrate paleontologists and other morphologists. However, as already recognized by many previous studies, some terminologies of the enamel microstructures have been complex and used inconsistently. Although considerable effort has been made to study enamel microstructures in China during the last few decades, a standard terminology of enamel microstructures in Chinese has not be formally brought into line with that in English literatures. Here we intend to introduce and systematize the relevant terminology used in the study of enamel microstructures and translate them into Chinese, in hoping that this systematic effort will enhance researches of enamel microstructures in China. 脊椎动物牙齿釉质显微结构具丰富的形态学特征,承载着系统发育和生物力学等方面的信息。本文在前人的研究基础上,试图系统地介绍牙釉质显微结构的基本内容,提出牙釉质研究中相关术语的中文译名建议,并对一些重要术语做了简要解释,供相关研究者参考,以期促进牙釉质显微结构研究的进一步发展。

  • Synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy reveals histology and internal structure of Galeaspida (Agnatha)

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学 提交时间: 2017-08-29 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要:Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Tomographic Microscopy (SRXTM) is a powerful non-destructive method in paleontology, providing ultra-high-resolution 3D insights into the internal structure of fossils. Employing SRXTM, the skull specimens of Shuyu zhejiangensis, a 428 million-year-old galeaspid from the Silurian of Changxing, Zhejiang Province, are investigated. The subsequent analyses indicate that the endoskeletal skull of S. zhejiangensis is composed wholly of cartilage without convincing evidence for the presence of perichondral bone. The cranial anatomy of S. zhejiangensis are unusually preserved in three dimensions largely due to the non-random decay of the cartilaginous braincase and its connecting ‘soft’ tissues. Using Amira or Avizo software, seven virtual 3D endocasts of the skull of S. zhejiangensis were created revealing the gross internal cranial anatomy of galeaspids in great detail for the first time. The preliminary results indicate that during evolution the galeaspid head experienced a fundamental reorganization resulting in the development of jaws. 同步辐射X射线断层显微成像已经成为古生物研究中一种新的重要手段,能够在不损坏化石的前提下,提供化石内部超高分辨率的三维成像。利用瑞士光源最先进的同步辐射X射线断层显微成像技术,研究分析了七个采自浙江长兴志留系(约4.28亿年前)的早期盔甲鱼类浙江曙鱼三维立体保存脑颅化石。同步辐射X射线显微成像结果显示:盔甲鱼脑颅完全由软骨组成,并没有软骨外成骨存在的证据;盔甲鱼脑颅解剖结构能够被精细的保存下来,很大程度上归功于脑颅软骨与周围软组织在埋藏过程中的异时分解。利用AMIRA或AVIZO等计算机三维虚拟复原软件,三维虚拟复原了七个曙鱼脑颅模型,首次揭示出盔甲鱼脑颅内部详细的解剖结构。初步研究结果显示盔甲鱼的脑颅已经发生了显著的重组,具备了颌发育所必需的先决条件。

  • Morphological coevolution of the pygostyle and tail feathers in Early Cretaceous birds

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学 提交时间: 2017-08-24 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要:The transformation from a long reptilian tail to a shortened tail ending in a pygostyle and accompanied by aerodynamic fanning rectrices is one of the most remarkable adaptations of early avian evolution. However, no fossils directly capture this transition, and information regarding the structural morphology and the early evolution of the pygostyle in Mesozoic birds and their integuments is relatively limited. Here we provide a review of the pygostyle morphology of Early Cretaceous birds with comparison to the structure in living birds. This study emphasizes the convergent evolution of distally co-ossified caudal vertebrae in non-avian maniraptorans and early birds. There further exist distinct differences in pygostyle morphology between Sapeornithiformes, Confuciusornithiformes, Enantiornithes, and Ornithuromorpha. The morphology of the pygostyle and rectrices in early ornithuromorphs appear similar to that of extant birds, whereas the pygostyle in more primitive birds does not appear morphologically capable of supporting the rectricial bulbs and musculature necessary to control an aerodynamic fan-shaped tail. The rectricial bulbs and rectricial fan appear to have coevolved with the plough-shaped pygostyle early in the evolution of the Ornithuromorpha. This study also shows that the confuciusornithiform pygostyle was more similar to that of enantiornithines than previously recognized, consistent with the presence of nearly identical ornamental tail feathers in both groups. 从兽脚类恐龙中爬行类的骨质长尾,到以尾综骨为终端,并附着具有空气动力学功能的扇状尾羽的短巧尾部,是早期鸟类演化中最显著的适应性转变之一。但能直接反映这一转变的化石记录匮乏,而且对中生代鸟类尾部形态结构,以及尾综骨和尾羽早期演化的认知也相对不足。在此对早白垩世鸟类的尾综骨形态予以概述并将其与现生鸟类尾部结构类比。本研究强调了非鸟手盗龙类中尾椎的联合骨化与早期鸟类的尾综骨实属趋同演化。本研究表明,会鸟形类、孔子鸟形类、反鸟类和今鸟型类的尾综骨结构存在明显差异。今鸟型类尾综骨和尾羽(舵羽)与现代鸟类的相似,而相对更原始的鸟类的尾综骨,从形态来看,并不能支持舵羽球状膨大和必要的肌肉附着来操控具有空气动力学功能的扇状尾羽。由此可见,舵羽球状膨大、舵羽扇面与犁铧状的尾综骨是在今鸟型类演化早期相伴相生的。相对于从前的认知,本研究还发现孔子鸟类的尾综骨与反鸟类的有更多相似之处,与二者都具有的几乎相同的装饰性尾羽相符合。

  • A new species of Brontotheriidae from the Middle Eocene of Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, China

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学 提交时间: 2017-08-24 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要: A new species of large Irdinmanhan brontothere, Epimanteoceras mae sp. nov., is described based on an incomplete skull which was collected from the Üqbulak Formation of Sangequan site, Junggar Basin of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The new specimen can be assigned to the genus Epimanteoceras by the large superorbital processes, the broad frontal bone, the shallow central fossae on the molars, and the absence of the anterolingual cingular cusp on molars and the hypocone on M3. E. mae is characterized by the slightly laterally bowed zygomatic arches, the medially arched parasagittal ridges, the posteromedially angled external auditory pseudomeatus, and the prominent occipital pillar processes. E. mae and E. formosus are closely related. It is uncertain whether E. mae or E. formosus forms the sister group to Brontotheriina, but both of them are the basal group of the latter in the phylogenetic analysis. They are both closed to the Irdinmanhan brontothere Protitan grangeri from Nei Mongol but much primitive than Aktautitan hippopotamopus from Kazakhstan. The discovery of E. mae in Sangequan indicates that the age of Üqbulak Formation is Middle Eocene, and earlier than that of Kyzylbulak Formation bearing A. hippopotamopus in Kazakhstan. Moreover, the discovery of E. mae in Xinjiang expanded the distribution of the genus Epimanteoceras, which was only found in Nei Mongol previously. 新疆准噶尔盆地三个泉中始新世依希白拉组内发现的晚叉额雷兽属新种-马氏晚叉额雷兽(Epimanteoceras mae sp. nov.)是新疆目前发现保存最好的雷兽头骨化石。标本为一件不完整的头骨,缺失鼻骨,前颌骨,部分上颌骨和泪骨。新种具有眶上突较粗大,额骨宽阔平坦,臼齿有中心窝,臼齿舌侧齿带前部上的齿尖不发育,M3无次尖等晚叉额雷兽属的特征。新种的颧弓成向外扩的弓形,额顶嵴在后侧向内收缩弯曲的弧度更大,外耳道较为倾斜,枕柱上方有舌状的突起,与唯一的属型种娇晩叉额雷兽(Epimanteoceras formosus)明显不同。马氏晚叉额雷兽同属型种关系最近,两者在系统发育分析中同为雷兽亚族(Brontotheriina)的基干类群,但是两者是否为后者的姊妹类群尚无法确定。和属型种一样,马氏晚叉额雷兽在演化程度上与内蒙古伊尔丁曼哈期的谷氏原雷兽(Protitan grangeri)接近,但与同时期地理位置更近的哈萨克斯坦的雷兽Aktautitan hippopotamopus相比,马氏晚叉额雷兽较原始,表明新种所在的地层时代很可能要早于发现A. hippopotamopus地层。三个泉剖面依希白拉组伊尔丁曼哈期内以前发现的化石较少,此次马氏晚叉额雷兽的发现,不仅扩大了晚叉额雷兽属的地理分布,亦为依希白拉组内存在伊尔丁曼哈期的沉积提供了新的佐证。

  • New findings of galeaspids (Agnatha) from the Lower Devonian of Qujing, Yunnan, China

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学 提交时间: 2017-08-24 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要:New findings of galeaspids (Agnatha) including Altigibbaspis huiqingae gen. et sp. nov., an indeterminate polybranchiaspid, Eugaleaspis changi, and Nanpanaspis microculus are described from the lower part of the Xishancun Formation (early Lochkovian, Early Devonian) near the northeast entrance of Liaokuo Park, Qujing City, Yunnan Province, China. The Polybranchiaspis-like new genus is characterized by a blade-like median dorsal ridge on the dorsal side of head-shield. The morphological disparity of the median dorsal ridge and spine in galeaspids suggests that these structures functioned more than providing a hydrodynamic stability. We assume that a high upright and compressed spine may render galeaspid fishes an apparently larger size as seen by a predator, and a blade-like median dorsal ridge may accomplish a defense against the claws of large sea scorpions. Nanpanaspis is peculiar in bearing two short laterally projecting processes on each side of the head-shield, and its phylogenetic relationship is discussed based on different interpretations on the homology of these processes. Considering the unique morphology of Nanpanaspis, and its early occurrence among the Huananaspiformes, we assign Nanpanaspis in the monogeneric family Nanpanaspidae to represent an early branch of the Huananaspiformes. 本文描述了云南曲靖早泥盆世西山村组盔甲鱼类(无颌类)的新发现,包括一新属、新种——惠清驼背鱼(Altigibbaspis huiqingae gen. et sp. nov.), 一件属种未定的多鳃鱼科标本,以及张氏真盔甲鱼(Eugaleaspis changi)和小眼南盘鱼(Nanpanaspis microculus)的新材料。驼背鱼在很多方面跟多鳃鱼都非常相似,但头甲背面具一特征性的驼背状隆起,其上有一刀刃状的中背脊。中背脊和中背棘在盔甲鱼类里的形态分异度表明:它们除了能够提供游泳方向稳定性外,可能衍生出了一些附加的功能,例如直立高耸的中背棘能使盔甲鱼在捕食者眼里具有了恐吓性,刀刃状的中背脊可能也起到一些防御的作用。南盘鱼头甲侧缘具有两对非常奇特的侧向延伸的突起;通过对这两对侧突同源性的比较,讨论了南盘鱼的潜在系统分类位置。鉴于南盘鱼奇特的形态,以及它在华南鱼目中相对较早的出现时代,建议暂时把南盘鱼放到一个单属科南盘鱼科,代表了华南鱼目早期分出来的一个支系。

  • Cranial and dental material of Gomphotherium wimani (Gomphotheriidae, Proboscidea) from the Middle Miocene of the Linxia Basin, northwestern China

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学 提交时间: 2017-08-24 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要:嵌齿象是真象的基干类群,其研究历来受到重视,同时也存在很多争议。维曼嵌齿象(Gomphotherium wimani)是中国的一个特有种,之前仅有一些牙齿和破碎下颌的报道,研究者对其形态特征和演化地位的认识一直比较模糊。本文报道了发现于甘肃省临夏盆地的维曼嵌齿象的新材料,包括上沟地点一件未成年头骨和倒黑沟地点属于同一个体的部分颊齿。通过研究对比,认为维曼嵌齿象是嵌齿象中一个比较进步的种,具有如下独有特征:颊齿的主齿柱前后中心小尖分裂并成嵴状,副齿柱趋向于分裂,发育有弱的副齿柱中心小尖,齿谷中等开阔,齿冠相对较高。对过去发现的维曼嵌齿象材料的厘定表明,该种最初建立时产于泉头沟地点的一颗m3实际上是葛氏铲齿象(Platybelodon grangeri)的M3; 而西宁吊沟地点发现的维曼嵌齿象的一件M3极有可能属于铲齿象类(amebelodontids)。对厘定后的维曼嵌齿象地点的研究表明,维曼嵌齿象分布于中国甘肃、青海的几个中中新统地点,其时代基本上可以与MN6−MN7/8早期相对比,时代跨度估计为15~13 Ma。

  • New fossils of Bos primigenius (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from Nihewan and Longhua of Hebei, China

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学 提交时间: 2017-08-24 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要: The new fossils of Bos primigenius in this study came from two regions in Hebei Province: Nihewan Basin (one partial skull with right horn-core and one humerus) and Longhua County (one humerus, one tibia, 2 calcanea and 3 astragali). The humerus from Nihewan has a total length of 457.3 mm, which almost represents the largest aurochs individual which has a two-meter shoulder height. The biggest humerus and other big cranial specimens in northern China can be correlated with the European counterparts of late Middle Pleistocene, and they should be contemporary. The smaller sized limb-bones from Longhua were unearthed from loess deposits, which can be attributed to Late Pleistocene. The current knowledge shows that aurochs may have arrived in China earlier than Late Pleistocene, because its associated taxa, e.g. Canis lupus, Panthera tigris, Mammuthus primigenius, Equus caballus, Coelodonta antiquitatis, Sus scrofa, Camelus knoblochi, Cervus elaphus, Alces alces and Bison priscus have appeared as early as late Middle Pleistocene or even earlier in Eastern Europe and Northern Eurasia. Furthermore, new numerical dating results show that the aurochs’ occurrences from some sites in China can be traced back to Middle Pleistocene. This study proposes that the larger sized aurochs should be of a late Middle Pleistocene age. In China, aurochs fossils mainly occur in the northern part and the transitional zone along the Huaihe River, but are absent in southern China and Southeast Asia, which resulted in the hypothesis of “Central Asian Corridor” through which aurochs reached China. In recent years as more bovini fossils were recovered in Africa, the Bos phylogeny was proposed, which assumed that the evolution of Bos lineage took place in Africa rather than in Eurasia as thought before, and the earliest ancestor of B. primigenius is Pelorovis turkanensis, finally the genus Bos dispersed into Eurasia at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene. The present authors think that the African Pelorovis species are too different from the Bos lineage in morphology; on the contrary, the early Bos species from Siwalik in South Asia resembles B. primigenius very much. In China, most of the B. primigenius fossils were recovered from fluvio-lacustrine deposits in North China Plain, Loess Plateau and Song-Nen Plain, whereas few of them were from loess deposit, which means that the aurochs fossils could be employed as an indicator of warm climate and wet environment. 原始牛(Bos primigenius)化石新材料包括泥河湾盆地禾尧庄的1件角心、上沙嘴的1件肱骨和承德隆化的1件肱骨、1件胫骨、1件踝骨、2件跟骨和3件距骨;其中上沙嘴的肱骨化石长达457.3 mm, 代表迄今在我国境内发现的最大原始牛个体,也是该种的最大记录之一,推算其所属动物的肩高接近2 m; 北京门头沟珠窝的原始牛头骨的眶后宽度及角心周长数据也是该种的最大记录之一;禾尧庄的角心标本稍小,但也比晚更新世多数同类要大;这些巨大的化石与欧洲中更新世晚期同类十分接近,其时代也应当与之相当,为中更新世晚期;过去认为原始牛在我国只出现于晚更新世地层,但现在看来该种在中更新世晚期就已扩散到中国。东欧及北亚的最新化石证据表明,过去认为与原始牛共生的晚更新世化石组合的常见属种早在中更新世晚期或更早时期就已出现,其中包括灰狼、虎、真猛犸象、马、真披毛犀、野猪、诺氏驼、赤鹿、驼鹿及草原野牛等。最新测年数据也表明中国北方有几个含原始牛化石的遗址是形成于中更新世晚期;本文认为华北和西北地区个体巨大的原始牛,代表中更新世晚期,而个体较小的则可能代表晚更新世或全新世;近些年在东北地区发现大量原始牛化石,但其中少见个体巨大者。在我国,原始牛化石分布只局限于北方及淮河过渡区,而在南方及毗邻的东南亚地区均未发现此类化石;因此,有人提出原始牛很可能是在中更新世中、晚期通过中亚走廊(Central Asian Corridor)进入中国。不过,近些年在非洲也发现了一些牛属(Bos)化石,因此有人又提出了牛属非洲起源的“奥杜威牛–牛属演化谱系”(Pelorovis–Bos lineage), 但该学说所依据的奥杜威牛化石材料,在形态结构上与牛属相去甚远,难以归入同类;此外,非洲可靠的牛属化石记录均未超过1 Ma。本文作者支持传统的牛属“南亚起源学说”,因为在南亚西瓦里克地区发现的早期牛属化石不仅时代更古老(早于2 Ma), 并且在形态上与原始牛更为相似。中国北方的原始牛化石主要发现于华北平原、黄土高原和松嫩平原的河湖相堆积层,仅极个别出现于黄土地层;由此推断原始牛可能更喜欢水系发育的林缘和/或沼泽环境。

  • Taxonomic reassessment and phylogenetic test of Asiatosuchus nanlingensis Young, 1964 and Eoalligator chunyii Young, 1964

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学 提交时间: 2017-08-24 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要:The present paper revalidated Asiatosuchus nanlingensis Young, 1964 and Eoalligator chunyii Young, 1964 in taxonomy based on a detailed comparative study on those relevant specimens. New information derived from this study revealed that A. nanlingensis and E. chunyii were truly distinguishable from each other and therefore, diagnosis was further revised for each of them. A. nanlingensis is large, with a moderately long or a very elongate snout, and characterised mainly by the combination of the following characters such as: the quadrate with a lateral condyle much larger than the medial one, the surangular pinched off before reaching the end of the retroarticular process, the dental margins (at least the posterior portion) of the jaws nearly straight, and the presence of a fossa/sulcus on the lateral surface of the surangular lateral to the mandibular fossa. E. chunyii is a median-sized, short-snouted animal and characterised mainly by the combination of the following characters such as: the condyles of the quadrate similar in size, the dental margins of the jaws strongly concavo-convex, the dentary symphyses very short, the splenial not entering the mandibular symphysis, and the presence of a fossa/sulcus on the lateral surface of the surangular lateral to the mandibular fossa. With new information derived from this study, the phylogenetic relationships of A. nanlingensis and E. chunyii were tested, which did not support the view that the two species formed a monophyletic clade and opposed that E. chunyii could be considered as the synonym of A. nanlingensis. 根据对有关标本的详细对比研究,重新评估了南岭亚洲鳄(Asiatosuchus nanlingensis Young, 1964)和存义始猛鳄(Eoalligator chunyii Young, 1964)的分类。获得的新信息表明这两种是可以彼此区分的,因此对它们各自的鉴定特征进行了进一步修订。南岭亚洲鳄是个大型种类,它很可能具有中等或很长的吻部(眶前段), 主要由以下一些特征组合界定:方骨外髁比内髁大很多,上隅骨在反关节突近端尖灭,上、下颌齿缘(至少后段)几近平直,以及在下颌关节窝外侧上隅骨表面具一凹或纵沟。存义始猛鳄是个中型种类,主要可以由下列特征组合界定:方骨内、外关节髁大小几近相当,上、下颌齿缘强烈凹凸不平,齿骨联合很短,夹板骨不进入下颌联合,以及在下颌关节窝外侧上隅骨表面具一凹或纵沟。根据新的信息对南岭亚洲鳄和存义始猛鳄原来的系统关系进行了检验,所得结果不支持南岭亚洲鳄和存义始猛鳄可以形成一单系分支及反对后者是前者的同物异名。虽然本文研究表明南岭亚洲鳄可以和其他种类区分,但是在系统关系上却不能和亚洲鳄典型种(葛氏亚洲鳄Asiatosuchus grangeri)归于同一支系,如此应该为其建立一属。然而,鉴于南岭亚洲鳄标本太不完整,在没有新的、更完整的标本发现之前,本文仍沿用其原名,如德国亚洲鳄(Asiatosuchus germanicus)一样,后者也不和亚洲鳄典型种归于同一支系。

  • High-precision temporal calibration of Middle Triassic vertebrate biostratigraphy: U-Pb zircon constraints for the Sinokannemeyeria Fauna and Yonghesuchus

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学 提交时间: 2017-08-24 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要:Tetrapod assemblages provide a useful means for global correlation of the terrestrial Triassic sedimentary deposits, but currently no reliable temporal framework has been achieved for the Middle Triassic tetrapod assemblages. Here we report U-Pb zircon chemical abrasion–thermal ionization mass spectrometry dates for five volcanic ashes interbedded with vertebrate fossils from the Ermaying and Tongchuan formations of China. Our results support a late Anisian age for the Sinokannemeyeria Fauna and an early Ladinian age for Yonghesuchus Fauna. It is now possible, through biostratigraphic correlation, to provide accurate ages to other Middle Triassic successions such as the Upper Cynognathus Assemblage Zone of the Karoo of South Africa, the Eryosuchus fauna of the Donguz Suite of Russia and the Karamayi Formation of Xinjiang, China. The base of Anisian (Lower/Middle Triassic boundary) should lie below the base of the Ermaying Formation in the Ordos Basin. 四足动物组合带是全球陆相三叠系对比的有力手段,但是迄今为止中三叠世的四足动物组合尚没有可靠的时间框架。本文报道了五个采自二马营组和铜川组,与四足动物化石共同产出的火山凝灰岩样品的锆石化学剥蚀-热电离质谱法年龄。结果表明中国肯氏兽动物群时代为安尼期晚期,而永和鳄的时代为拉丁期早期。通过生物地层对比,这一结果还为其他中三叠世的四足动物组合,如南非的犬颌兽带上部、俄罗斯的引鳄动物群以及新疆的克拉玛依组提供了准确的年龄。鄂尔多斯盆地下中三叠统界线应低于二马营组底界。

  • New materials of Cervidae (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from Tuchengzi of Huade, Nei Mongol, North China

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学 提交时间: 2017-08-24 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要: Five taxa of Cervidae were identified from the new collection at Tuchengzi locality in Huade, Nei Mongol: Eostyloceros blainvillei, E. triangularis, Euprox sp., Cervavitus huadeensis and C. shanxius, among which the first three taxa were discovered for the first time in Huade area, and the dental specimens of the last two taxa from Tuchengzi locality are also described for the first time. E. blainvillei is a large muntiacine, diagnosed by long, thick and medially curved main beam and a relatively long brow tine emerging directly from the burr. It was originally found in Yushe Basin in Shanxi Province, and reported later from Qaidam Basin in Qinghai Province. Huade is the third area yielding the species. E. triangularis distinguishes from E. blainvillei by its special main beam with triangular cross sections, and it was reported only from Yushe Basin. Its presence in Huade extended its geographic distribution northward to Nei Mongol. Euprox is a transitional form of cervids from permanent antlers to seasonally deciduous ones and it is found in several localities across Eurasia. Huade is the third area in Nei Mongol yielding the taxon after Tung Gur and Siziwang Qi (Siziwang Banner). C. huadeensis is a pliocervine with four tines, and particularly with two distal tines sword-like. It is found at Tuchengzi for the second time, but not elsewhere so far, and it seems to be an endemic taxon. C. shanxius distinguishes from C. novorossiae by absence of Palaeomeryx fold on lower molars. It is widely found in Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu and Nei Mongol of northern China. It is often found with numerous specimens in a locality that indicates it lived in large herds. E. blainvillei, E. triangularis and C. shanxius are main members of Yushe I, i.e. Mahui Formation or Baodean. Euprox appeared also mainly in the Late Miocene. The geological age of Tuchengzi locality based on excavated cervids is therefore the Late Miocene. The numerous specimens of C. shanxius indicates forested environment in Huade area in that age. 继1959年中苏古生物联合考察队在内蒙古化德地区发掘采集到大量晚中新世哺乳动物化石后,笔者的课题组于2013~2016年间在化德的土城子地点发掘采集到不少哺乳动物化石。经过修理和研究,鉴定出鹿科化石的5个种类:布氏始柱角鹿(Eostyloceros blainvillei), 三角始柱角鹿(E. triangularis), 真角鹿未定种(Euprox sp.), 化德祖鹿(Cervavitus huadeensis)和山西祖鹿(C. shanxius)。其中前3个种类是在化德地区首次发现,而后两个种的牙齿材料也是在土城子地点首次记述。布氏始柱角鹿是一种较大的麂类,以其鹿角具一个粗长而内弯的主枝及一个直接从角环上伸出的较长的眉枝为特征,以前主要发现于山西的榆社盆地,在青海柴达木盆地也找到过,而化德是出现这个种类的第三个地区。三角始柱角鹿以其主枝横切面呈三角形而与布氏始柱角鹿相区别,以前仅见于榆社盆地,因此新发现的三角始柱角鹿将其地理分布范围扩大到内蒙古。真角鹿是从非脱换型鹿角向季节性脱换型鹿角过渡的代表,在欧亚大陆都有分布,化德是继通古尔和四子王旗之后在内蒙古发现这个属的第三个地区。化德祖鹿的鹿角具有4个枝,远端两个枝剑形,在土城子地点是第二次发现,但目前尚未在其他地区发现过,似乎是化德一带的地方种类。山西祖鹿以其下臼齿不具古鹿褶而与新罗斯祖鹿(Cervavitus novorossiae)相区别。山西祖鹿在中国北方的分布较广,主要见于山西、陕西、甘肃和内蒙古,而且在每个地点的化石标本较多,指示其种群密度较大。布氏始柱角鹿、三角始柱角鹿和山西祖鹿是榆社盆地中榆社I带的主要鹿科成员,出现在岩石地层的马会组或生物年代学的保德期。真角鹿的时代分布主要在晚中新世。因此根据土城子地点的鹿科化石判断其地质时代应为晚中新世,而较多的山西祖鹿标本指示化德一带在晚中新世有较广的森林。

  • A skull of Machairodus horribilis and new evidence for gigantism as a mode of mosaic evolution in machairodonts (Felidae, Carnivora)

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学 提交时间: 2017-08-11 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要:Sabertooth cats were extinct carnivorans that have attracted great attention and controversy because of their unique dental morphology representing an entirely extinct mode of feeding specialization. Some of them are lion-sized or tiger-sized carnivorans who are widely interpreted as hunters of larger and more powerful preys than those of their modern nonsaber-toothed relatives. We report the discovery of a large sabertooth cat skull of Machairodus horribilis from the Late Miocene of northwestern China. It shares some characteristics with derived sabertooth cats, but also is similar to extant pantherines in some cranial characters. A functional morphological analysis suggests that it differed from most other machairodont felids and had a limited gape to hunt smaller preys. Its anatomical features provide new evidence for the diversity of killing bites even within in the largest saber-toothed carnivorans and offer an additional mechanism for the mosaic evolution leading to functional and morphological diversity in sabertooth cats. 剑齿虎是一类绝灭的食肉目动物,由于其独特的牙齿形态代表了已完全消失的特化取食方式而引起了极大的关注和争论。一些剑齿虎是狮子体型或老虎体型的食肉动物,它们被广泛认为能够比其不具剑形犬齿的现代近亲捕杀更大和更强壮的猎物。本文报道在甘肃省晚中新世地层中发现的一具属于恐剑齿虎(Machairodus horribilis)的大型头骨。这件标本的一些特征与进步的剑齿虎相同,但在某些头骨性状上则与现生的豹亚科种类相似。不同于其他大多数剑齿虎,功能形态分析指示该剑齿虎的口部张开程度受到限制,因此只能捕猎相对较小的猎物。这具头骨的解剖特征为证明即使在最大的具剑形犬齿的食肉目动物中也存在捕猎咬杀方式的多样性提供了新的证据,并揭示了在剑齿虎中导致功能和形态多样性镶嵌进化的另一种机制。

  • The morphology of Chiappeavis magnapremaxillo (Pengornithidae: Enantiornithes) and a comparison of aerodynamic function in Early Cretaceous avian tail fans

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学 提交时间: 2017-08-10 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要:We provide a complete description of the skeletal anatomy of the holotype of Chiappeavis magnapremaxillo, the first enantiornithine to preserve a rectricial fan, suggesting that possibly rectricial bulbs were present in basal members of this clade. Notably, Chiappeavis preserves a primitive palatal morphology in which the vomers reach the premaxillae similar to Archaeopteryx but unlike the condition in the Late Cretaceous enantiornithine Gobipteryx. If rectricial bulbs were present, pengornithid pygostyle morphology suggests they were minimally developed. We estimate the lift generated by the tail fan preserved in this specimen and compare it to the tail fans preserved in other Early Cretaceous birds. Aerodynamic models indicate the tail of Chiappeavis produced less lift than that of sympatric ornithuromorphs. This information provides a possible explanation for the absence of widespread aerodynamic tail morphologies in the Enantiornithes. 契氏鸟(Chiappeavis)是首次发现保存有扇状尾羽的反鸟类,显示出尾羽球茎这一结构在较原始的反鸟类中已经发育。详细描述了巨前颌契氏鸟(C. magnapremaxillo)正型标本的骨骼形态学特征。契氏鸟的腭区形态与始祖鸟(Archaeopteryx)相似,而区别于晚白垩世的反鸟类戈壁鸟(Gobipteryx)。即使具有尾羽球茎,鹏鸟类的尾综骨形态也表明该结构发育较差。估算了在契氏鸟中由扇状尾羽所产生的浮力,并与其他早白垩世鸟类进行对比。结果显示,契氏鸟的扇状尾羽所产生的空气浮力小于同时代生活的今鸟型类,这有可能解释了反鸟类中具有空气动力学功能的尾羽形态普遍缺乏的现象。

  • First complete fossil Scleropages (Osteoglossomorpha)

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学 提交时间: 2017-08-10 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要:A new species of osteoglossid fish, Scleropages sinensis sp. nov., is described from the Early Eocene Xiwanpu Formation in Hunan and the Yangxi Formation in Hubei, China. The new species was attributed to Scleropages, an extant genus of Osteoglossidae, because it very closely resembles the genus in skull bones, caudal skeleton, the shape and position of fins, and reticulate scales. The new fish is very similar to extant Scleropages except: the nasals do not appear to be ornamented; the sensory pore in the antorbital is large; the posterior infraorbitals are not quite covering the dorsal limb of the preopercle; the posteroventral angle of the preopercle is produced to point; the posteroventral margin of the opercle is concave and the ventral end of the bone is produced to a point; the pectoral fin is very long and extends well behind the beginning of the pelvic fin; the vertebral count is about 46?8; the parapophyses are shorter and the upper and lower caudal rays are nearly as long as the inner rays. The new fish is closer to its Asian neighbor, S. formosus, than to its southern relative, S. leichardti. Scleropages formosus inhabits natural lakes, swamps, flooded forests, and slowly moving, deep parts of rivers with overhanging vegetative cover. It is a carnivorous fish and its food consists mainly of insects, fishes, worms, small amphibians, small mammals, and even birds. S. sinensis may live in the same natural environment and have a similar diet except for the largest items. Sexual dimorphism may exist in S. sinensis. The presumed male has a slimmer and shallower body, a relatively larger head, and a deeper mouth cleft. The discovery of Scleropages sinensis sp. nov. dates the divergence of Scleropages and Osteoglossum to no later than the Early Eocene. 金龙鱼化石的鳞片和骨骼碎片在过去时有报道,但鉴定并非十分可靠,因为在骨舌鱼科鱼类中这些鳞片和骨骼十分相似。首次记述了保存完美的金龙鱼化石,标本产于湖南湘乡下湾铺组和湖北松滋洋溪组,确立为骨舌鱼科金龙鱼属一新种:中华金龙鱼Scleropages sinensis sp. nov.。新种与现生金龙鱼(Scleropages)在头部骨骼、尾骨骼、各鳍的形状和位置以及具有网状鳞片等方面极为相似,因而归入该属。然而,新种在以下特征上不同于金龙鱼的现生种:鼻骨无纹饰,鼻骨上的感觉管显露于沟内,感觉管联合不经过顶骨,翼耳骨侧向加厚,眶前骨上的感觉孔大,眼眶后的眶下骨不完全覆盖前鳃盖骨上支,其宽高比例为0.75而非现生种的1?.2, 前鳃盖骨后下角变尖,鳃盖骨后下缘凹形、下端变尖,匙骨背突长大,脊椎46?8, 椎体横突短小,胸鳍十分长大,上下两端的尾鳍条和内部鳍条等长。亚洲的现生种发现于各种河流和小溪中,比较喜欢水草茂盛的静水环境,一般游弋于表层水中,以鱼虾、昆虫等为食,新种中华金龙鱼也应该有相似的生长环境和食性。新种似具有性二形性,雄鱼体形略纤细,头部略大,口裂更深。中华金龙鱼化石的发现,说明金龙鱼属(Scleropages)和骨舌鱼属(Osteoglossum)在早始新世以前就已经分化,这对解释骨舌鱼类的跨洋分布具有十分重要的意义。

  • New information on Dianmeisaurus gracilis Shang & Li, 2015

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学 提交时间: 2017-08-10 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要:Dianmeisaurus gracilis is restudied on the basis of a new specimen. It provides some new information, especially that on the skull roof, to the species. The most striking of those new characters include the snout (preorbital region) shorter than the orbit, the interorbital septum extremely narrow, the frontal with a sharp process at both ends, and the posterior margin of the skull roof deeply V-shaped. A phylogenetic analysis with new information confirms that Dianmeisaurus is the sister group of Diandongosaurus and that these two genera, together with those Chinese taxa (Majiashanosaurus, Dianopachysaurus, Keichousaurus, and Dawazisaurus), form a monophyletic clade which is more closely related to the Nothosauroidea than to a clade formed by the European pachypleurosaurs. 根据一件产自云南罗平中三叠世关岭组II段的新标本并结合产自相同地点和地层中的模式标本对纤细滇美龙(Dianmeisaurus gracilis Shang & Li, 2015)进行了详细研究。原模式标本暴露其腹面,而新标本暴露其背面,两者互相补充提供了更完整、精确的纤细滇美龙解剖学信息。新材料揭示该种具有非常短小的吻部,眶前区的长度不仅短于眶后区长度,甚至短于眼眶的长度;外鼻孔小且位置靠前,即鼻孔前区的长度短于鼻孔后缘与眼眶前缘之间的距离;由两额骨构成的眼眶间隔非常狭窄,宽度小于顶骨平台宽度的1/3;额骨前后两端均具渐尖的突起;顶骨后部不收缩,顶骨平台后缘呈深V型。补充了新信息和包含更多属种(如Dawazisaurus)后的系统发育学分析支持了之前滇美龙和滇东龙互为姊妹群的结论,同时它们和马家山龙、滇肿龙、贵州龙和大洼子龙一起构成了一个仅由中国的属种组成的单系类群。与欧洲肿肋龙类群(Dactylosaurus, Anarosaurus, Serpianosaurus和Neusticosaurus)相比,这一单系类群与幻龙类有更近的亲缘关系。

  • New discoveries from the Sinokannemeyeria-Shansisuchus Assemblage Zone: 3. Archosauriformes from Linxian, Shanxi, China

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学 提交时间: 2017-08-10 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要:The tetrapod assemblage from the Middle Triassic upper part of the Ermaying Formation of northern China has been known for two decades as the Sinokannemeyeria-Shansisuchus Assemblage because of the characteristic presence of the dicynodont therapsid Sinokannemeyeria and the erythrosuchid archosauriform Shansisuchus. Recently a Sinokannemeyeria species has been described from Member I of the Tongchuan Formation, which overlies the Ermaying, near Baidaoyu, Linxian, Shanxi Province. Here we document archosauriform specimens from the Baidaoyu site, including a partial Shansisuchus skeleton and some additional bones from probable suchian archosaurs, which constitute the first archosauriform material known from Member I of the Tongchuan. The most intriguing archosauriform specimens are a large ilium probably attributable to an unusual poposauroid, and a small, strangely shaped element that appears to represent a highly autapomorphic suchian calcaneum. Given the presence of both Sinokannemeyeria and Shansisuchus at Baidaoyu, the stratigraphic range of the Sinokannemeyeria-Shansisuchus Assemblage can be considered to extend upward into the Tongchuan Formation, although with possible changes in faunal composition. The occurrence of a poposauroid ilium at the Baidaoyu locality adds to the evidence that poposauroids diversified extensively during the Middle Triassic. 近几十年,华北的二马营组上部地层以产出中国肯氏兽–山西鳄四足动物化石组合而闻名。最近在山西临县白道峪于上覆的铜川组一段发现了中国肯氏兽。本文描述了同一地点同一层位产出的主龙型类化石,包括一具山西鳄的部分骨架以及一些可以归入suchian的主龙类。它们是铜川组一段首次记述的主龙型类。最有鉴定特征的suchian材料包括一个大的髂骨以及一个小的、形状很奇特的、可能是跟骨的骨骼。髂骨可能可以归入一个奇异的波波龙类(poposauroid)。因为中国肯氏兽与山西鳄同时出现在白道峪,表明中国肯氏兽–山西鳄组合可以向上延伸到铜川组一段。髂骨与跟骨大小悬殊,可能代表两个从未在中国肯氏兽–山西鳄组合报道过的物种。白道峪发现了特化的波波龙类,支持了波波龙类在中三叠世大量分化的观点。

  • A new tiny dromaeosaurid dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous Jehol Group of western Liaoning and niche differentiation among the Jehol dromaeosaurids

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学 提交时间: 2017-08-10 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要:The Early Cretaceous Jehol dromaeosaurids are taxonomically and morphologically diverse, and one of them, Microraptor zhaoianus, has been suggested to be among the smallest known non-avialan theropods. However, this idea is based on specimens of relatively early ontogenetic stages, and the lower limit of the mature body mass of Jehol dromaeosaurids thus remains unknown. Here we describe a new dromaeosaurid, Zhongjianosaurus yangi gen. et sp. nov., based on a specimen from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation (the middle section of the Jehol Group) from Sihedang, Lingyuan County, Liaoning in Northeast China. While this new taxon is referable to the Microraptorinae, it differs from other microraptorine dromaeosaurids in numerous features, most notably the fusion of proportionally long uncinate processes to dorsal ribs, a humerus with a strongly medially offset proximal end and a large fenestra within the deltopectoral crest, an ulna slightly longer than the humerus, and an arctometatarsalian pes. Most significantly, the estimated 0.31 kg mass of the Z. yangi holotype of an adult individual confirms that some Jehol dromaeosaurids are among the smallest known non-avialan theropods. Our preliminary analysis demonstrates niche differentiation among the Jehol dromaeosaurids, a phenomenon rarely reported among Mesozoic dinosaurian faunas. 早白垩世热河生物群的驰龙类恐龙在分类和形态上多样化程度很高,其中的赵氏小盗龙曾被认为是已知体型最小的非鸟兽脚类恐龙之一。然而这个观点依据的标本都处于相对早期的生长发育阶段,因此热河生物群驰龙类恐龙的体型下限仍不明确。本文依据一件产自辽宁省凌源县四合当下白垩统义县组(热河群中部)的标本,描述驰龙类一新种,杨氏钟健龙。这一新种可归入小盗龙类,但它在很多特征上不同于其他小盗龙类,其中最明显的区别是其相对长的钩状突愈合于背肋上,肱骨具有强烈内倾的近端,肱骨三角嵴上有一窗孔,尺骨略长于肱骨,并具有窄跖型的足。最重要的是,已为成年个体的杨氏钟健龙正模估计体重约为0.31 kg, 这证实了热河生物群的一些驰龙类恐龙属于已知体型最小的非鸟恐龙。初步分析显示热河生物群驰龙类恐龙有生态位分化的情况,这一现象在中生代恐龙动物群中报道很少。

  • A new crested theropod dinosaur from the Early Jurassic of Yunnan Province, China

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学 提交时间: 2017-08-10 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要:A new crested theropod, Shuangbaisaurus anlongbaoensis gen. et sp. nov., is reported. The new taxon is recovered from the Lower Jurassic Fengjiahe Formation of Shuangbai County, Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, and is represented by a partial cranium. Shuangbaisaurus is unique in possessing parasagittal crests along the orbital dorsal rims. It is also distinguishable from the other two lager-bodied parasagittal crested Early Jurassic theropods (Dilophosaurus and Sinosaurus) by a unique combination of features, such as higher than long premaxillary body, elevated ventral edge of the premaxilla, and small upper temporal fenestra. Comparative morphological study indicates that “Dilophosaurus” sinensis could potentially be assigned to Sinosaurus, but probably not to the type species. The discovery of Shuangbaisaurus will help elucidate the evolution of basal theropods, especially the role of various bony cranial ornamentations had played in the differentiation of early theropods. 报道了具嵴冠的兽脚类恐龙一新属种,安龙堡双柏龙(Shuangbaisaurus anlongbaoensis gen.et sp. nov.)。双柏龙发现于云南省楚雄彝族自治州双柏县下侏罗统冯家河组中,保存了部分头骨带下颌。双柏龙沿两侧眼眶背缘向上有嵴冠发育,这在其他兽脚类中未曾报道过。与其他早侏罗世体型较大且具一对矢状嵴冠的兽脚类(双嵴龙属和中国龙属)相比,双柏龙还独具一些特征组合,如相对较高的前颌骨体、抬高的前颌骨腹缘、后腹向延伸的轭骨后突及较小的上颞孔。比较研究表明,尽管中国“双嵴龙” (“Dilophosaurus” sinensis)可能应归入中国龙属(Sinosaurus), 但未必属于模式种。双柏龙的发现将有助于研究基干兽脚类的演化,尤其是各类头骨骨饰在其中的作用。

  • New material of the Early Pleistocene mammalian fauna from Chutoulang, Chifeng, eastern Nei Mongol, China and binary faunal similarity analyses

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地质学 提交时间: 2017-08-08 合作期刊: 《古脊椎动物学报》

    摘要:New specimens from a new locality at Chutoulang in eastern Nei Mongol were identifed as Canis chihliensis, Coelodonta nihowanensis, Hipparion (Proboscidipparion) sinense,Equus sanmeniensis, Sus lydekkeri, Muntiacus cf. M. lacustris, Axis shansius, Eucladoceros boulei, Spirocerus cf. S. wongi and Bison palaeosinensis. They enriched the mammalian fauna of Chutoulang to 30 taxa together with the material from Dongliang, Dongcun Beigou and Dongcun Nangou localities. The mammalian fossils from these four localities are all from the same horizon and can be regarded as the same fauna, i.e. Chutoulang fauna. The composition of Chutoulang fauna is the closest to that of Nihewan (s.s.) by binary faunal similarity coeffcients. The age of Chutoulang fauna is between those of Nihewan (s.s.) and Juyuandong at Liucheng according to Brainerd-Robinson’s sequence, extinction rates and antiquity coeffcients. The numerical age of Chutoulang fauna is estimated between 1.4–1.6 Ma based on those of compared faunas. Carnivora are the most numerous in Chutoulang fauna with 11 taxa, but mostly the small sized ones.Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla make about half of the fauna. They are mostly large sized forms. The presence of numerous browsers or forest dwellers implies the existence of forest or woodland in Chutoulang area during that period. The presence of grazers and openland dwellers indicates the existence of larger area of grassland or steppes than that of woodland or forests. Most members of Chutoulang fauna are temperate habitat dwellers with a few cold-prone forms such as Ochotona and Coelodonta. The climate in Chutoulang area in the Early Pleistocene was thus similar to that of today. Chutoulang fauna is the most northeastern Early Pleistocene fauna in China and it can be recommended as a type site of the Early Pleistocene mammalian fauna in northeastern China.